4 Poverty cycle Poor child in workless Household. Enters adult life with noJob or on a low pay.The child fails at school.Poor discipline, poorAttendance, poor resultsThe child has fewExpectationsThe child goesThrough life withLow self-esteem.
5 Mental and Physical Health Problems Often suffered by those in poverty.Rising incidence of depression.One in six adults suffer- ‘the silent epidemic’Many people suffer depression as a direct result of feeling hopeless and helpless about their lack of opportunities. This may lead people to turn to alcohol or smoking.
6 Poor dietIf a person or family is in poverty they cannot afford to have a balanced diet.They have to buy what they can afford.This is usually food with high fat, sugar and salt levels.As a result of this they face health inequalities and suffer as a result of this poor diet.
7 Lack of exerciseAs we known when looking at lifestyle inequalities, many people in the lower social classes do little or no exercise.This can be for a number of reasons;They cannot afford memberships to gyms or clubs.They have been doing manual labour all day and just want to put there feet up.As a result, again as with an unbalanced diet, a lack of exercise will lead to ill health.
8 Poor housingAgain with all of the above the link is money, if someone is in poverty they cannot afford a nice home.This means they may have to live in damp, overcrowded ,cramped condition.Which ultimately has an effect on a persons health.
9 Crime Crime is linked to all of the above factors. If someone is in poverty crime may be the result of the following;Home is in a poor area and children fall in with the wrong crowd.BoredomSurvival?Drugs – drug dealing - violence
10 Poor Housing and Homelessness Half of homeless households are headed by female lone parents.Buying houses has become very expensive in recent years- even more difficult for first time buyers due to economic down turn.People on benefits –’non decent housing’- overcrowded and live in poor neighbourhoods.
11 Inequalities in Education Families living in poverty education is not a priority- more pressing problems of how to provide for their families.As a result, the education of children suffers and aspirations and expectations remain low.
12 Social exclusionSocial exclusion is complex to explain because it has many different causes.It is the result of big changes in society:EconomicSocialIndustrial
13 Social exclusionLong-term or repeated unemployment, family instability, social isolation and decline of neighbourhoods and social networks.
14 SOCIAL EXCLUSION Separation from Environment Separation from Friends And familySeparation from socialServicesPoor skillsLow incomeSingle parentincomeElderly, No familyAccess tohealth careAlienated fromeducationUnemploymentAccess to decent housingIsolated from neighbourhood
15 Social ExclusionExamples of things which lead to exclusion are: separation from employment, social relationships and social systems.However individuals have a responsibility for their own social exclusion.
16 Social ExclusionThe poverty and social exclusion (PSE) survey described social exclusion as exclusion from:Adequate income and resources.The Labour market.ServicesSocial Relations.
17 Exclusion from adequate income and resources This happens for a variety of reasons.Low paid jobsLarge familyThe person is on benefits.Whatever the reason they do not have enough money to gain access to the things the majority of people take for granted.
18 2. Exclusion from the labour market Unemployment affects all aspects of social exclusion.This is people who have inadequate income and it persists for long periods.For many it will continue into old age.
19 3. Exclusion from services. Access to health, education and housing is a basic human rightHowever many are excluded.Over 5% of the population have been disconnected from water, gas, electricity or their phone.10% more say they can afford it but only if they barely use it.
20 4. Exclusion from social relationships 10% of the population are excluded from many social activitiesCelebrating a birthdaySpending on ChristmasGoing to a wedding
21 Cont…12% of the population say they have no contact on a daily basis with a friend, family member or neighbours.People who care for others such as carers of older people, ill or disabled can feel socially excluded.
22 The growth of social exclusion Between 1979 and 2000 poverty increased dramatically in the UK.The reasons were political, economic and social.
23 Cont… Political reasons: Economic reasons: Social reasons: Government policy helped those on high income but reduced benefits for the poor.Economic reasons:Massive job losses.Ageing population, more elderly living longer in poverty.Social reasons:Attitudes to marriage and divorce changed so numbers of lone parents increased.