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MEASURING DECENT WORK USING STATISTICAL INDICATORS Richard Anker ILO Senior Advisor Strategy on Labour Statistics.

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Presentation on theme: "MEASURING DECENT WORK USING STATISTICAL INDICATORS Richard Anker ILO Senior Advisor Strategy on Labour Statistics."— Presentation transcript:

1 MEASURING DECENT WORK USING STATISTICAL INDICATORS Richard Anker ILO Senior Advisor Strategy on Labour Statistics

2 OUTLINE SLIDE Background on Advisory Group on Statistics (AGS) Why statistical indicators to measure decent work What is decent work and possible organising frameworks for decent work statistical indicators Specific indicators of decent work: Some possibilities Some technical issues needing discussion and thought for identifying decent work indicators Integrating Office work on measuring decent work: How to go about it

3 BACKGROUND ON ADVISORY GROUP ON STATISTICS (AGS) AGS report: Office-wide strategy and recommendations on statistics (available for dissemination) Publication: ILO multi-country databases (available for dissemination) Follow up –Need for integration across Office and Office working together (HQ & Field; STAT and Sectors) –Need for further development of statistics in Office (quality, coverage, dissemination, usability etc.) –Some specific newer needs (e.g. acceptable world estimates; comparable data series; state-of-world reports; improved data collection; measuring decent work)

4 WHY STATISTICAL INDICATORS TO MEASURE DECENT WORK To measure decent work objectively To monitor and evaluate situation progress on decent work To communicate with constituents and public To provide framework for organising and focussing ILO work To provide framework for technical advice

5 NEED FOR STATISTICAL INDICATORS OF DECENT WORK “ One important area in which we clearly need to invest is our information systems. In order to effectively promote the goal of decent work for all, the Office must be able to measure and monitor progress and deficits, and to respond to the demands of constituents and the general public for information about these issues. We have to have up-to-date and readily usable information on all aspects of decent work which can support diagnosis, evaluation and policy design. We need to make a major investment in the design and implementation of our data and statistical base. We have defined our four strategic objectives and we now need to measure our progress. “ (Director General, ILC, 2001)

6 WHAT IS DECENT WORK AND POSSIBLE ORGANISING FRAMEWORKS FOR DECENT WORK STATISTICAL INDICATORS Many possible frameworks and examples Four ILO pillars are best for ILO AGS list Other ILO lists (e.g. AGS; DW/PP; KILM; SES/IFP; LABORSTA; Multi-country databases) Other non-ILO lists (e.g. EU) Considerable further work and thought required to establish Decent Work indicator lists NOTE: SERIES OF LISTS ARE INCLUDED AT THE END OF THESE NOTES

7 “There are four main dimensions [of decent work]: (i) work and employment itself; (ii) rights at work; (iii) security; and (v) representation and dialogue. There are questions of both quanitity and quality [for employment]. It is not enough to have work; we also have to take into account the content of this work… The employment goal is best expressed as adequate opportunities for productive and meaningful work in decent conditions…. Basic rights at work have been expressed in the ILO’s core labour standards… Security is a powerful need. Work [can be insecure] because it is irregular or temporary, or income varies, or it is physically risky… Representation and dialogue is the way in which people’s voices can be heard [at work]. It is through social dialogue that widespread support fro the other three dimensions of decent work may be built” (Gerry Rodgers, 2001)

8 SOME TECHNICAL ISSUES NEEDING DISCUSSION AND THOUGHT FOR IDENTIFYING DECENT WORK INDICATORS Discussion less necessary (more like statements) Need for international comparable data series (at present, much more data available for Employment issues among four Sectors) Need for restricted core list of DW indicators for international comparability Need for longer lists of DW indicators for national exercises Data availability vs. desirability/relevance (different choices for internationally comparable data series and national excercises) Need for absolute measures and relative measures (e.g. “low “ pay; “poverty “; working poor)

9 Discussion important Need for qualitative indicators (e.g. rights; perceptions; laws) and quantitative indicators for labour market outcomes (e.g. employment; wages) Need to measure at macro (international/national/regional), meso (enterprise), and micro (individual/household) levels –Conceptual relevance differences by level –Limitations and advantages of data sources from each aggregation level –Possibility of collecting new data vs. only using available data

10 Some examples of national level and individual level indicators for similar phenomenon


12 Examples of results from perception questions from People’s Security Surveys of IFP/SES

13 Discussion necessary Aggregation into one number vs. reporting separate aspects only –National Decent Work Index (DWI) vs. only aspects of decent work –Type of job/work vs. only elements of job/work Universality vs. vary by development level or region (e.g. allowing relative importance/weights to differ by region/development level)

14 Example from EU of aggregating aspects of jobs into an aggregate composite job type

15 INTEGRATING OFFICE WORK ON MEASURING DECENT WORK: HOW TO GO ABOUT IT? Need for Office-wide effort and co-operation –Data users and producers working together –Field and HQ working together for collection –Sectors and field discussions to identify specific indicators –DCOMM and improving communications and headline world estimates Need for senior management to monitor activities and ensure Office-wide integration Need for national DW exercises Need for international comparable data series

16 Philippe Egger and Werner Sengenberger, Decent Work Issues and Policies, January 2001 –Access to employment (voluntarily) –Fair and equal treatment in employment (no discrimination or harassment) –Decent remuneration of work (and living wage) –Fair conditions of work (intensity and overwork and hours) –Safe work environment (and conditions) –Protection in case of unemployment –Social protection and employment (work-related problems and old age) –Employment and training opportunities (to develop skills) –Participation (in decisions affecting one directly) and motivation –Voice and collective participation Possibility to voice complaints and grievances Workers groups

17 AGS LIST OF TOPIC AREAS –Labour utilisation and employment –Labour under-utilisation and labour stock –Social dialogue and worker representation –Quality and security of work –Core labour standards and fundamental rights at work –Worker protection and vulnerability –Wages and income –Labour costs and labour productivity –Poverty and inequality

18 SPECIFIC INDICATORS OF DECENT WORK: SOME POSSIBILITIES (AGS REPORT) work sectorCould be available soon with sufficient effort (Table 1) Available after further considerable time and effort (Table 2) Fundamental rights at workChild labour*Hazardous (and worst) child labour Freedom of association and collective bargaining Discrimination Employment and labour utilisationLF and employment Unemployment Employment structure Hours of work Wages Informal sector Labour productivity LF by family responsibility Part-time employment Skill of LF Employment by size of establishment Annual work hours Working poor based on LM definition Social protectionOccupational injuries % GDP on social protection Statutory minimum wage* Poverty based on HH income definition Social protection coverage and benefit levels Contract type Job/work stability Place of work Socio-economic security Social protectionOccupational injuries % GDP on social protection Statutory minimum wage* Poverty based on HH income definition Social protection coverage and benefit levels Contract type Job/work stability Place of work Socio-economic security Social dialogueUnion membership* Strikes and lockouts Collective bargaining coverage

19 QUALITY OF EMPLOYMENT (EUROPEAN COMMISSION) Intrinsic job quality Skills and life-long earning Gender equality Health and safety at work Flexibility and security Inclusion and access to the labour market Work organisation and work-life balance Social dialogue and worker participation Diversity and non discrimination Overall work performance

20 KILM VARIABLES LABOUR FORCE ACTIVITY AND INACTIVITY Labour force participation rate Inactivity rate for persons 25-54 EMPLOYMENT Employment to population ratio Employment status Employment by sector Part-time employment Hours of work Urban information sector employment

21 UNEMPLOYMENT Unemployment, total Youth unemployment rate Long-term unemployment rate Unemployment by educational attainment Underemployment (time-related) EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT AND ILLITERACY WAGE AND LABOUR COSTS AND PRODUCTIVITY Real manufacturing wage indices Hourly compensation costs Labour productivity Unit labour costs POVERTY AND INCOME DISTRIBUTION

22 MULTI-COUNTRY STATISTICAL DATABASES IN STAT Employment and unemployment ILO Umbrella database on labour statistics (LABORSTA) ILO Comparable employment and unemployment estimates Informal sector employment Employment and unemployment –(monthly, quarterly, half-yearly) Economically active population Employment and unemployment Sex segregation of occupations Public sector employment Economically active population 1950-2010

23 Wages Minimum wages Hours of work and wages –(monthly, quarterly, half-yearly) Wages and hours of work Prices Food prices (October Inquiry) Consumer prices (annual) Consumer prices (monthly) Other Trade union membership Occupational injuries Strikes and lockouts Hours of work Labour cost in manufacturing Household income and expenditure statistics

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