1 Lesson 18 - Gender Inequalities (2) Learning Intentions (Pupils should be able to):• Explain what is meant by the term the ‘glass ceiling’.Provide evidence of a gender inequalities in earnings and in the gender distribution of ‘top jobs’.• Describe the ways in which the ‘glass ceiling’ prevents women from achieving their potential in employment
2 The ‘Glass Ceiling’The ‘glass ceiling’ is the phrase used to describe the invisible barrier that women face when seeking promotion to top jobs.Why the glass ceiling exists?There is still some evidence of discrimination (sexism) against women in employment although, overall, the situation is improving.It is difficult for women to access male-dominated networks based on after-hours socialising in the pub or golf club.‘Presenteeism’ is the idea that senior management must be seen to be working long hours (not take time off for sickness etc). Lack of part-time work at senior levels.
3 ‘Why Do Women Earn Less than Men?’ Women tend to earn less than men because women:More often take lower paid jobs (the 5 Cs) especially if they are lone parents.Illegally receive lower pay for same work.Traditional role as mother / carer holds them back in employment / for promotion.More likely to work part-time.
4 ‘Why Do Women Earn Less than Men?’ 1. Discrimination-lower pay for the same work. Female legal professionals earn 21% less than men. Female accountants earn 15% less.2. Women work in lower-paid sectors of the economy. Women are represented in areas of the economy that are low paid. Sometimes known as the five c’s (cashiering, caring, clerical, cleaning and catering). More than twice as many men as women are in the higher and professional occupations in the UK.3. Interrupted employment. Women are more likely to take more time out of work to care for children. After a long period out of work women face barriers to returning such as low confidence and outdated skills.4. Part time work. Women who work part time earn 32% less per hour than women who work full time. Part-time work is concentrated in lower paid jobs.4
5 The 5CsCatering CashieringCleaning CaringClerical75% of catering industry are female.
6 The Sex and Power Report 2008 – ‘The Missing Women’ If women hope to shatter the ‘glass ceiling’ and achieve equal representation they would need to find over 5,600 women ‘missing’ from more than 31,000 top positions of power in Britain today. These include:2,921 missing from among 18,781 public appointments.436 missing from among the 1,119 directorships in FTSE 100 companies.225 missing from among the 745 members of the House of Lords.214 missing from among the 916 Civil Service top managers.198 missing from among the 646 Members of Parliament.160 missing from among the 448 council leaders in local government.92 missing from among the 243 senior police officers.80 missing from among the 198 senior judges.Note: Missing women equal half the total number of posts minus the number of posts held by women.
7 Women are more dependent on welfare benefits Women are less likely to have a pension than men.66% of male full-time employees had an occupational or private pension whereas 63% of full time female workers. Lower paid jobs are less likely to have occupational pension schemes.Women live longer and are poorer than men. Throughout their working lives they are paid less for comparable work.Women are over-represented in low paid jobs and less likely to have occupational pensions therefore rely on means tested benefits.
8 Why are women more likely to suffer from poverty? Women earn lessLower pay for the same workWomen work in lower-paid sectors of the economyInterrupted employmentPart-time workGlass ceiling.