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Paragraph Development

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Presentation on theme: "Paragraph Development"— Presentation transcript:

1 Paragraph Development
By Alfred Taylor

2 Paragraph Development
Well developed paragraphs don’t happen by accident, or because the author is “talented.” Well developed paragraphs are the result of hard work and planning on the part of the writer. No one is born a good writer.

3 Paragraph Development
A paragraph is a group of related sentences which may be complete in itself or part of a longer piece of writing. Most good paragraphs are built around a central idea. The exception being a paragraph that describes a person or scene.

4 Paragraph Development
Paragraphs break the writing into pieces the reader can easily digest. Long paragraphs become difficult to understand because the reader becomes lost. Short paragraphs are usually under developed.

5 Paragraph Development
In order for a paragraph to be effective, it must be concise, coherent, and unified. The easiest way to achieve coherence and unity is to outline the essay before writing a draft. If the outline is done properly, unity and coherence will take care of themselves.

6 Paragraph Development
A paragraph is unified when it supports a single central idea. An Essay is unified when all it’s paragraphs support the thesis. The best way to achieve unity in an essay is by completing an outline before writing the first draft.

7 Paragraph Development
A paragraph is coherent when all its sentences are logically related to each other. An essay is coherent when the paragraphs and individual sentences all relate logically to each other. Coherence is also being able to go from a topic sentence (general) to a supporting detail (specific) in a seamless manner.

8 Paragraph Development
A well developed paragraph has at least two supporting sentences for each topic sentence. A well developed paragraph is one that includes adequate support for each of the topic sentences in the paragraph. Such support may be facts, examples, statistics, expert opinion, or any other evidence the writer wants to present.

9 Paragraph Development
Examine the following paragraph about dogs. Does the paragraph contain coherence and unity? Is it concise?

10 Paragraph Development
Dogs are loyal and faithful companions. No matter what, dogs stay by their owner’s side. Dogs are intelligent, friendly, and can perform tricks upon command. Dogs can also be used in police work, as herd dogs, or as service dogs. Cats are evil. Dogs were domesticated thousands of years ago. Dogs can be taught tricks. How many things are wrong with this paragraph?

11 Paragraph Development
No Support for Topic Sentences No Paragraph Unity. “Cats are evil.” Repeats the same information No organization or coherence Lacks specific details

12 Paragraph Development
Examine the following paragraph describing why cats are evil. Does the paragraph contain coherence and unity? Is it concise?

13 Paragraph Development
If evil is defined as placing your own needs ahead of the needs of your social unit, then cats are evil because they only care about themselves. Cats, being solitary creatures, do not possess the altruistic nature of people or dogs. If a cat perceives danger to its owner, it won’t fight to protect its owner. It runs away. A cat is loyal only as long as it is well fed. Stop feeding a cat for a week, and it’s goodbye Mr. Kitty.

14 Paragraph Development
Contains support for topic sentence Contains unity Contains coherence Contains organization Does not repeat information

15 Paragraph Development
The formula for good paragraph development is quite simple. For every topic sentence there must be at least two supporting details. (1TS 2SD) A topic sentence is a general statement, for example, “Dogs make good pets.” A supporting detail gives specific examples as to why the topic sentence is true.

16 Paragraph Development
An outline for the paragraph on cats would look something like this: I) Cats are Evil A) Solitary Creatures a) danger b) food

17 Paragraph Development
The outline serves as a guide for constructing the paragraph. The Roman numerical is the paragraph controlling idea. For each Roman numeral in the essay, there should be from 0-1 sentences in the essay. For each capital letter, there should be from 1-2 sentences in the essay, and for each little letter, there should be from 2-4 sentences in the essay.

18 Paragraph Development
A well developed paragraph has a least two topic sentences. Paragraph Controlling idea 0-1 A) Topic Sentence 1-2 a) supporting detail 2-4 b) supporting detail 2-4 B) Topic Sentence 1-2

19 Paragraph Development
An essay requires three types of paragraphs: introductory, body, and concluding. The introductory paragraph contains the thesis statement for the essay and provides an idea of the essay’s content. A body paragraph contains the essay’s content information. The conclusion is a summary of the essay’s information or content.

20 Paragraph Development
An introductory paragraph introduces the subject, narrows it down, and states the essay’s thesis. Don’t outline the introduction. It focuses the reader’s attention and arouses their interest in the topic. It sets the tone for the rest of the essay by stating the topic and implies the writer’s attitude toward that topic.

21 Paragraph Development
An essay’s thesis statement goes at the end of the introductory paragraph. It is not necessary to outline the introduction of an essay; however, an outline is essential to developing a good thesis statement. Utilize the main points of the outline to help create the thesis.

22 Paragraph Development
A thesis statement must contain three parts: It must be concise. One sentence in length. It must have an assertion. Something it is trying to prove. It must have a preview. Clauses that give the reader an idea of the essay’s direction and scope.

23 Paragraph Development
Which of these sentences is a good thesis? Pepsi is a wonderful beverage. Dogs work harder than cats. Cats may be considered to be evil because they are lazy, selfish, and cowardly.

24 Paragraph Development
A concluding paragraph summarizes all of the important points of the essay for the reader. Do not outline the conclusion. The concluding paragraph is the part of the essay the reader is most likely to remember, so it must be concise and well developed.

25 Paragraph Development
Writers aren’t born with talent or ability. The secret to good writing is remembering these principles of paragraph organization and unity and applying them. With a little work and practice, these principles will become second nature.

26 Paragraph Development
The End

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