Presentation on theme: "What is Resistance Training? Benefits of resistance training Builds and tones muscles Improves metabolism Increases the strength of the tendons, ligaments,"— Presentation transcript:
What is Resistance Training? Benefits of resistance training Builds and tones muscles Improves metabolism Increases the strength of the tendons, ligaments, and bones Reduces body fat Increases muscular endurance reduces stress Slows the aging process
Muscular Strength and Endurance People with high levels of muscular strength and endurance are able to perform daily tasks more efficiently. There are two types of muscular strength. Muscular strength The maximum amount of force a muscle or muscle group can exert against an opposing force. Term to Know
Muscular Strength and Endurance Muscular endurance is measured by the amount of resistance (or weight) and the number of repetitions (or “reps”). Muscular endurance The ability of the same muscle or muscle group to contract for an extended period of time without undue fatigue. Term to Know A person who can properly lift 75 pounds for 15 reps has greater muscular endurance than a person of the same gender who can only do 10 reps with the same amount of weight.
How and Why Muscles Grow Other researchers contend that a person is born with his or her full number of muscle fibers. Hypertrophy A thickening of existing muscle fibers Terms to Know According to this view, muscle growth is due to hypertrophy.
How and Why Muscles Get Stronger Lesser factors that influence the development of muscular strength Consistent training habits Level of strength Intensity of training Length of training program
Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Free weights are called “free” weights because of the unlimited direction and movement capabilities of this equipment. Free weights A term applied collectively to dumbbells and barbells, as well as plates and clips. Term to Know
Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear When using free weights, it is vital to have a spotter. Spotter A partner who can assist with the safe handling of weights and offer encouragement during a training session. Term to Know
Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Most weight machines target a single muscle area. They require little or no balance on the part of the user. Weight machines Mechanical devices that move weights up and down using a system of cables and pulleys. Term to Know
Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Exercise bands are a low-cost alternative to free weights and weight machines. Exercise bands Elastic bands of tubing made of latex that are used to develop muscular strength and endurance. Term to Know
Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Many plyometric exercises require jumping, leaping, and bounding. Plyometric exercises A quick, powerful muscular movement that requires the muscle to be prestretched just before a quick contraction. Term to Know They can place stress on tendons, so they are not recommended for beginners.
Resistance-Training Equipment and Gear Calisthenic exercises are low- level resistance activities that include such well-known exercises as pull-ups, push-ups, abdominal curl-ups, and jumping jacks. Calisthenic exercises Exercises that create resistance by using your body weight. Term to Know
Components of the Workout A repetition, or rep, is the most basic component of a resistance-training program. Repetition (rep) One completion of an activity or exercise. Term to Know
Components of the Workout If you do ten push-ups, one right after the other, you have done one set of ten reps. Set A group of consecutive reps for any exercise. Term to Know
Components of the Workout Every exercise has as its primary target a muscle group within one of the six weight- training “body areas.” ShouldersArmsBackChestAbdominalsLegs
The Strength-Training Circuit Circuit training is the most efficient approach to resistance training for all areas of the body. Circuit training An approach to resistance training where you rotate from one exercise to the next in a particular sequence. Term to Know
The Basic Resistance Fitness Program Basic resistance-training goals include: StrengthHypertrophyEndurance Fitness and Toning A program, known as the “basic eight,” can help you achieve these goals.
The Basic Resistance Fitness Program The basic eight program targets these eight body areas: Chest Back Shoulder Biceps Triceps Thighs Calves Abdominals
Influences on Flexibility Flexibility is an important part of health-related fitness. Flexibility A joint’s ability to move through its full range of motion. Term to Know
What is Flexibility? Free and smooth range of motion (ROM) is necessary for a healthy functional life. Range of motion (ROM) The degrees of motion allowed around a joint. Term to Know Different types of joints have different ROM.
Factors Affecting Flexibility Younger people are usually more flexible than older people, mainly because of a loss of elasticity that comes with aging. Elasticity The ability of the muscles and connective tissues to stretch and give. Term to Know
Lower-Back Pain Good posture habits can reduce stress and strain on your spine and help prevent back injuries. Posture The alignment of the body’s muscles and skeleton as they provide support for the total body. Term to Know Good posture helps to distribute the force of gravity through your body.
Lower-Back Pain Most poor posture habits relate to static posture. Static posture The posture your body exhibits while in a resting position. Term to Know Your body is in a state of static posture when you sit at a computer.
Lower-Back Pain Dynamic posture includes how you position your body to perform movements such as pushing, lifting, carrying, twisting, and swinging. Dynamic posture The posture your body exhibits while in motion or preparing to move. Term to Know
FITT and the Principle of Overload Improving flexibility means increasing FITT factors to achieve overload. Never change all four FITT factors at the same time, and don’t change any factor too quickly.
FITT and the Principle of Overload Stretch at a minimum frequency of three days a week. It is best to do some stretching daily.
FITT and the Principle of Overload Exercise care in establishing your intensity needs. Your goal should be to reach the point where a muscle or connective tissue is stretched just beyond its normal resting state. You should feel slight discomfort, but no pain.
FITT and the Principle of Overload The time duration of your stretches should begin at 20 to 30 seconds. As your ROM increases, try to hold each stretch for 30 to 60 seconds, repeating three times per stretch.
FITT and the Principle of Overload To improve the flexibility of a particular joint or body area, you need to apply specificity. That is, do stretches that affect the nerves, muscles, and connective tissues that control movement around a specific joint or body part.
Types of Stretching and Your Flexibility Static stretching, when done regularly, is safe and effective at increasing the range of motion of the joints you work. Static stretching Doing stretches slowly, smoothly, and in a sustained fashion. Term to Know
Types of Stretching and Your Flexibility Ballistic stretching is not necessary, or even recommended, for health- related fitness. Ballistic stretching Quick, up-and-down bobbing movements in which stretches are held very briefly. Term to Know It is used primarily to build components of performance, or skill- related fitness.
Types of Stretching and Your Flexibility An example of a reflex is a simple knee jerk. Reflexes The automatic responses that your nerves and muscles provide to various movements. Term to Know
Types of Stretching and Your Flexibility Reflex-assisted stretching allows your joints to move more quickly and with more explosive power. Reflex-assisted stretching Stretching movements that challenge the reflexes to adapt. Term to Know