Presentation on theme: "Ocean Tides Introduction Definition and terms"— Presentation transcript:
1 Ocean Tides Introduction Definition and terms Tidal characteristics and tidal termsTides and tidal rangesTidal phenomenonTypes of tideTide producing forcesTidal boreTide prediction tidal theories
2 Tidal boreIs the very rapid rise of tide in which the advancing water forms an abrupt front.It is common in rivers which are shallow, sleep and funnel shapedThe formation of tidal bore depends on the strength of incoming tidal wave slope and depth of channel river flow.In india tidal bore is observed in Hoogly riverIn west coast it is formed near the entrance of sabarmathi and mahi river.The bore in mahi river is found to be of 2.5m length and 18km/h speed.
3 Tide: are bulges of water produced by the gravitational attraction of the sun and moon on the ocean and by the centrifugal force resulting from rotation of the Earth-sun and Earth-moon systems.
4 Why tides occur Refers to cyclic rise and fall of sea water. Variations in gravitational attraction between the Earth, moon and sun.
5 The MoonPrimary factor that controls the rhythm and height of the tides2 tidal bulges due to gravitational attractionSide of Earth closest to moon - seawater drawn towards moon.Opposite side - bulge produced away from the moon.Timing of tides is related to the Earth’s rotation, and the rotation of the moon around the Earth.
6 The Sun The second factor controlling the tides is the sun’s gravity. Average solar tide = half average lunar tide.At certain times, the direction of the moon’s gravitational attraction is aligned with the sun’s. The two act together to produce highest and lowest tides of the year.
7 SPRING TIDESHighest and lowest tides of the year. (sun and moon aligned)Occur every days during full and new moon.
8 PROXIGEAN SPRING TIDES Rare, unusually high tide.Occurs when the moon is both unusually close to the Earth, and in the new moon phase (between the sun and the Earth).Occurs at most once every 1.5 years.
9 NEAP TIDESThe gravitational pull of the sun and moon are at right angles to each other.Daily tidal variations on Earth are at their least.Occur during first and last quarter of the moon.
11 TYPES OF TIDESGeometric relationship of sun and moon to locations on the Earth’s surface creates three different types of tides.DIURNAL TIDES: one high and one low water tidal per day. Northern Gulf of Mexico and SE Asia.
12 SEMI-DIURNAL TIDE:Two high and two low waters per tidal day.Common on Atlantic coasts of the United States and Europe.
13 3. MIXED TIDES:Successive high-water and low-water stands differ appreciably.Higher high water and lower high water, as well as higher low water and lower low water.West coast of Canada and the US.
15 Tidal characteristics and tidal terms Tide alternative rise (high) ad fall low of sea level due to gravitational forces exerted on earth by moon and sun.Senuduyrbak tides (two highs,twolowsDiurnal tides (one high and one low in a day)Tige has two cycles per lunar day (244.50m)Solar tide (two cycles per day (24hr)Tidal range is the difference in height between high and low tidesDaily change in sea level because of tides is a tidal curve.Solar tides-produced by sun approximately at same time each dayLunar tide-occurs 50mts later each day
18 Tides and tidal rangesAs the earth revolves on its axis coastal areas periodically pass through the tidal bulges and experience high and low tides.As the crest of a bulge passes, high tide occurs. Troughs between bulges result in low tides.Tidal range is the difference in height between high and low tides. A continuous record of the daily change in sea level because of tides is a tidal curve.Tidal curves show that tides change daily in range and time of occurrence. The variation results from the complex interaction of the earth sun and moon.The interaction of these there bodies is so complex that a given coast may experience the same tidal conditions only once each 1600 years.Solar tides: Is the tides produced by the Sun which occur approximately at the same time each day because the earth rotates on its axis once each 24 hours.Coastal areas experience a solar high or low tide each 12 hours.Lunar tides are more complex because the Moon moves forward in its orbit as the earth rotates on its axis. Thus, a point on the earth directly below the Moon requires 24 hours and 50 minutes before it is again below the Moon.Lunar tides occur 50 minutes later each day. Coastal areas experience a lunar tide each 12 hours and 25 minutes internel.
19 Tide producing forces Gravitational attraction of sun and moon The force of attraction of moon is higher than the sun because of its proximity to earth.Centrifugal forceTermsHightige: As the crest of bulge passes is called hightideTroughs between bulges result in low tideTidal range: difference in height between high and low tidesTidal curve: Continuous record of daily change in sea level because of tides is tidal curve.
21 Tide theories Equilibrium theory developed by Newton Dynamic theory of tidesModern tidal theory
22 Tidal currentPeriodical horizontal movements of the sea due to tide generating forces.Tide generating forces are thought about by relative position of moon, sun, and the earthHigh and low tides-setup flood and abbcurrency in narrow straits and channels.The factors which affect the tidal currents are shape of bay, river flow, and shape of the channel and friction.These currents sometime move large sediments which may black the harbor.