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EEEB443 Control & Drives Induction Motor – Vector Control or Field Oriented Control By Dr. Ungku Anisa Ungku Amirulddin Department of Electrical Power Engineering College of Engineering Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

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**Outline Stator Flux Orientation Control Introduction**

Analogy to DC Drive Principles of Field Orientation Control Rotor Flux Orientation Control Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO) Direct Rotor Flux Orientation (DRFO) Stator Flux Orientation Control Direct Stator Flux Orientation (DSFO) References Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

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Introduction Induction Motor (IM) drives are replacing DC drives because: Induction motor is simpler, smaller in size, less maintenance Less cost Capability of faster torque response Capability of faster speed response (due to lower inertia) DC motor is superior to IM with respect to ease of control High performance with simple control Due to decoupling component of torque and flux Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

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**Vector Control or Field Orientation Control**

Introduction Induction Motor Drive Scalar Control Control of current/voltage/frequency magnitude based on steady-state equivalent circuit model ignores transient conditions for low performance drives Simple implementation Inherent coupling of torque and flux Both are functions of voltage and frequency Leads to sluggish response Easily prone to instability Vector Control or Field Orientation Control control of magnitude and phase of currents and voltages based on dynamic model Capable of observing steady state & transient motor behaviour for high performance drives Complex implementation Decoupling of torque and flux similar to the DC drive Suitable for all applications previously covered by DC drives Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

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**Analogy to DC Drive f a Te = k f Ia Te = k f Ia = k’ If Ia sin 90**

In the DC motor: f controlled by controlling If If same direction as field f Ia same direction as field a Ia and f always perpendicular and decoupled Hence, Keeping f constant, Te controlled by controlling Ia Ia, If , a and f are space vectors f Te = k f Ia = k’ If Ia sin 90 = k’(If x Ia) a Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

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**Analogy to DC Motor Te = kr x s In the Induction Motor: s**

s produced by stator currents r produced by induced rotor currents Both s and r rotates at synchronous speed s Angle between s and r varies with load, and motor speed r Torque and flux are coupled. s Te = kr x s a b b’ c’ c r Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Analogy to DC Motor Induction Motor torque equation :**

Compared with DC Motor torque equation: Hence, if the angle betweens orr andis is made to be 90, then the IM will behave like a DC motor. (1) (2) (3) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Principles of Field Orientation Control**

Hence, if the angle betweens orr andis is made to be 90, then the IM will behave like a DC motor. Achieved through orientation (alignment) of rotating dq frame on r or s Stator-Flux Orientation Control Rotor-Flux Orientation Control Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Principles of Field Orientation Control**

Rotor-Flux Orientation Control Stator-Flux Orientation Control qs ds qs ds qr qs ds dr Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Principles of Field Orientation Control**

Summary of field orientation control on a selected flux vectorf (i.e. either r , s or m): 1 In revolving (rotating) dfqf - reference frame, obtain isqf* from given rotor speed reference r* (via speed controller) isdf* from given flux reference f* 2 Determine the angular position f of f (i.e. reference frame orientation angle) used in the dfqf dsqs conversion from vsdqf* (output of isdqf* current controller) to vsdqs*. 3 In the stationary dsqs - frame, obtain the reference stator voltages vabcs* fed to the PWM inverter feeding the IM from vsdqs* using the dsqs abc transformation. Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Rotor Flux Orientation Control**

qs ds d- axis of dq- rotating frame is aligned with r . Hence, Therefore, qr (4) dr (5) r (6) = torque producing current = field producing current Similar to ia & if in DC motor Decoupled torque and flux control Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Rotor Flux Orientation Control**

From the dynamic model of IM, if dq- frame rotates at general speed g (in terms of vsd, vsq, isd, isq, ird, irq) : r rotates at synchronous speed s Hence, drqr- frame rotates at s Therefore, g = s These voltage equations are in terms of isd, isq, ird, irq Better to have equations in terms of isd, isq, rd, rq (7) (8) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Rotor Flux Orientation Control**

Rotor flux linkage is given by: From (9): Substituting (8) and (10) into (7) gives the IM voltage equations rotating at s in terms of vsd, vsq, isd, isq, rd, rq: (9) (10) (11) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Rotor Flux Orientation Control**

Since , hence the equations in rotor flux orientation are: (12) (13) (14) Note: Total leakage factor = sl = slip speed (elec.) (15) Important equations for Rotor Flux Orientation Control! Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Rotor Flux Orientation Control**

Let Using (16), equation (14) can be rearranged to give: is called the “equivalent magnetising current” or “field current” Hence, from (17): where Under steady-state conditions (i.e. constant flux): (16) (17) (18) (19) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Rotor Flux Orientation Control**

qs ds r rotates at synchronous speed s drqr- frame also rotates at s Hence, For precise control, r must be obtained at every instant in time Leads to two types of control: Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation Direct Rotor Flux Orientation qr dr (20) r dq- reference frame orientation angle Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO)**

Orientation angle: Synchronous speed obtained by adding slip speed and electrical rotor speed Slip speed can be obtained from equation (15): Under steady-state conditions ( ): (21) (22) (23) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO) - implementation**

Closed-loop implementation under constant flux condition: Obtain isdr* from r* using (16): Obtain isqr* from outer speed control loop since isqr* Tm* based on (6): Obtain vsdqr* from isdqr* via inner current control loop. (24) (25) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO) - implementation**

Closed-loop implementation under constant flux condition: Determine the angular position r using (21) and (23): where m is the measured mechanical speed of the motor obtained from a tachogenerator or digital encoder. r to be used in the drqr dsqs conversion of stator voltage (i.e. vsdqr* to vsdqs* concersion). (26) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO) - implementation**

drqr dsqs transformation Rotating frame (drqr) Staionary frame (dsqs) 2-phase (dsqs ) to 3-phase (abc) transformation isdr* vsdr* r* vas* vsqs* + Eq. (24) PI PWM VSI - vbs* isqr* vsqr* ejr 2/3 + vsds* r* + vcs* PI PI - - r IRFO Scheme isdr* isqr* slip r m Eq. (23) P/2 + + isds ias NO field weakening (constant flux) isdr ibs e-jr 3/2 isqr isqs ics Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO) - implementation**

drqr dsqs transformation dsqs drqr transformation vsqs* vsds* vsdr* vsqr* ejr e-jr isds isqs isdr isqr Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO) - implementation**

2-phase (dsqs ) to 3-phase (abc) transformation: 3-phase (abc) to 2-phase (dsqs ) transform is given by: where: and 2/3 vsqs* vsds* vas* vbs* vcs* isds ias ibs 3/2 isqs ics Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Example – IRFO Control of IM**

An induction motor has the following parameters: Parameter Symbol Value Rated power Prat 30 hp (22.4 kW) Stator connection Delta () No. of poles P 6 Rated stator phase voltage (rms) Vs,rat 230 V Rated stator phase current (rms) Is,rat 39.5 A Rated frequency frat 60 Hz Rated speed nrat 1168 rpm Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Example – IRFO Control of IM ctd.**

Parameter Symbol Value Rated torque Te,rat 183 Nm Stator resistance Rs 0.294 Stator self inductance Ls H Referred rotor resistance Rr’ 0.156 Referred rotor self inductance Lr’ H Mutual inductance Lm 0.041 H Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Example – IRFO Control of IM ctd.**

The motor above operates in the indirect rotor field orientation (IRFO) scheme, with the flux and torque commands equal to the respective rated values, that is r* = Wb and Te* = 183 Nm. At the instant t = 1 s since starting the motor, the rotor has made 8 revolutions. Determine at time t = 1s: the stator reference currents isd* and isq* in the dq-rotating frame the slip speed sl of the motor the orientation angle r of the dq-rotating frame the stator reference currents isds* and isqs* in the stationary dsqs frame the three-phase stator reference currents ias*, ibs* and ics* Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Example – IRFO Control of IM ctd.**

Answers: Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008

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**Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO) – field weakening**

Closed-loop implementation under field weakening condition: Employed for operations above base speed DC motor: flux weakened by reducing field current if Compared with eq. (17) for IM: IM: flux weakened by reducing imrd (i.e. “equivalent magnetising current” or “field current) imrd* imrd (rated) r (base) r Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO) – field weakening implementation**

With field weakening Rotating frame (drqr) Staionary frame (dsqs) Same as in slide 20 imrd r * vsdr* + isdr* vsqs* r* + PI PI - - isqr* vsqr* ejr imrd r r* + vsds* + PI PI - - imrdr* r isqr* slip r Eq. (22) + + isdr isds e-jr isqr isqs Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Indirect Rotor Flux Orientation (IRFO) – Parameter sensitivity**

Mismatch between IRFO Controller and IM may occur due to parameter changes with operating conditions (eg. increase in temperature, saturation) Mismatch causes coupling between T and producing components Consequences: r deviates from reference value (i.e. r*) Te deviates in a non-linear relationship from command value (i.e. Te*) Oscillations occurs in r and Te response during torque transients (settling time of oscillations = r) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Rotor Flux Orientation (DRFO)**

Orientation angle: obtained from: Direct measurements of airgap fluxes mds and mqs Estimated from motor’s stator voltages vsdqs and stator currents isdqs Note that: (27) (28) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Rotor Flux Orientation (DRFO) – Direct measurements mds & mqs**

Direct measurements of airgap fluxes mds and mqs mds and mqs measured using: Hall sensors – fragile flux sensing coils on the stator windings – voltages induced in coils are integrated to obtain mds and mqs The rotor flux r is then obtained from: Disadvantages: sensors are inconvenient and spoil the ruggedness of IM. (29) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Rotor Flux Orientation (DRFO) – Direct measurements mds & mqs**

Rotating frame (drqr) Stationary frame (dsqs) Flux sensing coils arranged in quadrature isdr* vsdr* r* vas* vsqs* + Eq. (24) PI PWM VSI - vbs* isqr* vsqr* 2/3 ejr + vsds* r* + vcs* PI PI - - DRFO Scheme r rds mds tan-1 rqs Eq. (29) mqs r m P/2 r isdr isds ias NO field weakening (constant flux) ibs e-jr 3/2 isqr isqs ics Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Rotor Flux Orientation (DRFO) – Estimated from vsdqs & isdqs**

Estimated from motor’s stator voltages and currents sds and sqs obtained from stator voltage equations: The rotor flux r is then obtained from: Disadvantages: dc-drift due to noise in electronic circuits employed, incorrect initial values of flux vector components sdq(0) (30) (31) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Rotor Flux Orientation (DRFO) – Estimated from vsdqs & isdqs**

Estimated from motor’s stator voltages and currents This scheme is part of sensorless drive scheme using machine parameters, voltages and currents to estimate flux and speed sdqs calculations (eq. 30) depends on Rs Poor field orientation at low speeds ( < 2 Hz), above 2 Hz, DRFO scheme as good as IRFO Solution: add boost voltage to vsdqs at low speeds Disadvantages: Parameter sensitive, dc-drift due to noise in electronic circuits employed, incorrect initial values of flux vector components sdq(0) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Rotor Flux Orientation (DRFO) – Estimated from vsdqs & isdqs**

Rotating frame (drqr) Stationary frame (dsqs) isdr* vsdr* r* vas* vsqs* + Eq. (24) PI PWM VSI - vbs* isqr* vsqr* 2/3 ejr + vsds* r* + vcs* PI PI - - DRFO Scheme r rds sds vsdqs tan-1 rqs Eq. (31) Eq. (30) sqs isdqs r m P/2 r ias NO field weakening (constant flux) isdr isds ibs e-jr 3/2 isqr isqs ics Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Rotor Flux Orientation (DRFO) – field weakening implementation**

With field weakening Rotating frame (drqr) Stationary frame (dsqs) Same as in slide 26 or 29 imrd r * vsdr* + isdr* vsqs* r* + PI PI - - isqr* vsqr* ejr imrd r r* + vsds* + PI PI - - r rds tan-1 rqs r r isdr isds e-jr isqr isqs Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Stator Flux Orientation Control**

qs d- axis of dq- rotating frame is aligned with s. Hence, Therefore, qs (32) ds (33) (34) ds = torque producing current = field producing current Similar to ia & if in DC motor Decoupled torque and flux control Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Stator Flux Orientation Control**

From the dynamic model of IM, if dq- frame rotates at general speed g (in terms of vsd, vsq, isd, isq, ird, irq): s rotates at synchronous speed s Hence, dsqs- frame rotates at s Therefore, g = s These voltage equations are in terms of isd, isq, ird, irq Better to have equations in terms of isd, isq, sd, sq (7) (8) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Stator Flux Orientation Control**

Stator flux linkage is given by: From (9): Substituting (8) and (36) into (7) gives the IM voltage equations rotating at s in terms of vsd, vsq, isd, isq, sd, sq: (35) (36) (37) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Stator Flux Orientation Control**

Since , hence the equations in stator flux orientation are: (38) (39) (40) (41) Important equations for Stator Flux Orientation Control! Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Stator Flux Orientation Control**

Equation (40) can be rearranged to give: should be independent of torque producing current From (42), is proportional to and Coupling exists between and (42) Varying to control torque causes change in Torque will not react immediately to Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Stator Flux Orientation Control – Dynamic Decoupling**

De-coupler is required to overcome the coupling between and (so that has no effect on ) Provide the reference value for Rearranging eq. (42) gives: can be obtained from outer speed control loop However, eq. (43) requires (43) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Stator Flux Orientation Control – Dynamic Decoupling**

can be obtained from (41): in (43) and (44) is the reference stator flux vector Hence, equations (43) and (44) provide dynamic decoupling of the flux-producing and torque-producing currents. (44) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Stator Flux Orientation Control – Dynamic Decoupling**

Dynamic decoupling system implementation: x s* isqs* isds* + sl* isqs* from speed controller Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Stator Flux Orientation Control**

qs dsqs- frame also rotates at s For precise control, s must be obtained at every instant in time Leads to two types of control: Indirect Stator Flux Orientation Direct Stator Flux Orientation s easily estimated from motor’s stator voltages vsdqs and stator currents isdqs Hence, Indirect Stator Flux Orientation scheme unessential. qs ds s ds dq- reference frame orientation angle Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Stator Flux Orientation (DSFO) - implementation**

Closed-loop implementation: Obtain isds* from s control loop and dynamic decoupling system shown in slide 38. Obtain isqs* from outer speed control loop since isqr* Te* based on (34): Obtain vsdqs* from isdqs* via inner current control loop. (45) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Stator Flux Orientation (DSFO) - implementation**

Closed-loop implementation: Determine the angular position s using: sds and sqs obtained from stator voltage equations: Note that: Eq. (48) will be used as feedback for the s control loop (46) (47) (48) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Stator Flux Orientation (DSFO) - implementation**

Closed-loop implementation: s to be used in the dsqs dsqs conversion of stator voltage (i.e. vsdqs* to vsdqs* concersion). s estimated from pure integration of motor’s stator voltages equations eq. (47) which has disadvantages of: dc-drift due to noise in electronic circuits employed incorrect initial values of flux vector components sdqs(0) Solution: A low-pass filter can be used to replace the pure integrator and avoid the problems above. Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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**Direct Stator Flux Orientation (DSFO) - implementation**

isqs* vsqs* vas* + vsqs* r* + PI PI PWM VSI - vbs* vsds* 2/3 ejs s* vsds* Decoupling system vcs* PI + isds* s sds vsdqs + + tan-1 sqs Eq. (47) isdqs - + s PI ias isqs isqs - |s| ibs e-js 3/2 Eq. (48) isds isds ics sds sqs Rotating frame (dsqs ) Stationary frame (dsqs ) Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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References Trzynadlowski, A. M., Control of Induction Motors, Academic Press, San Diego, 2001. Krishnan, R., Electric Motor Drives: Modeling, Analysis and Control, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2001. Bose, B. K., Modern Power Electronics and AC drives, Prentice-Hall, New Jersey, 2002. Asher, G.M, Vector Control of Induction Motor Course Notes, University of Nottingham, UK, 2002. Dr. Ungku Anisa, July 2008 EEEB443 - Control & Drives

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