13 Civil Service Replaces Patronage Patronage is giving jobs to people who helped you to get elected.This is referred to as the “Spoil’s System”Civil Service jobs are jobs with the governmentPeople thought these jobs should be given on “merit” not on just who you know.
14 Hayes, Garfield & Arthur Rutherford B. Hayes, Republican PresidentHired independents to serve under himInvestigated the nation’s custom housesFired two top officials in New YorkMade people mad, they became known as the StalwartsElection of 1880 Stalwarts vs. the Reformers
15 Election of 1880Republicans cannot decide on a candidate so they elect an independent – James Garfield, Ohio for Presidential candidate and Chester A. Arthur as Vice President.Garfield ended up giving most of his jobs through patronage (but not all of them).
16 Garfield’s Death July 2, 1881 shot in D.C. and dies September 19 Shot by Charles Guiteau, a Stalwart who had not been given a job by GarfieldArthur becomes president and turns out to be a reformer. His first act as President is to ask Congress to pass a Civil Service law.
17 Pendleton Civil Service Act 1883 began Civil Service jobs based on merit system.