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Chapter 8 The Market revolution

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1 Chapter 8 The Market revolution
Section 2 The northern section

2 Farming in the northwest
The us was 2 distinctive sections that had distinct geographic, economic and cultural differences The north was the northeast- new England, ny, nj & pa, & old northwest- oh, in, il, mi, wi & mn The old northwest was great for growing corn, wheat and other grains Grains were profitable but would spoil so farmers had to get them to market fast or turn them into something that would not spoil

3 Farming in the northwest
Example: Corn feeds pigs. Pigs can be slaughtered and the meat make food, the fat makes soap, bristles for brushes Many specialized businesses were created to keep up with this including banks, slaughterhouses, distilleries, merchants and shipping companies Cincinnati was huge in the pork trade being called “porkopolis”

4 Industries of the northeast
Pork, beef & beer in the old nw were sold at markets, where, increasingly, people no longer raised their food They still lived on farms but many now worked in urban, (cities) areas The urban areas had fast growing populations and a high population density, or the amount of people living with a space Industrialization, or the growth of industry, increased in Connecticut because of eli whitney’s inventions (cotton gin and interchangeable parts) By the end of 1850 ct had more people working in factories than farms

5 Industries of he northeast
Pennsylvania became a very important coal-mining state It also became a top producer of ships, lumber, iron, leather textiles Massachusetts began to produce shoes, carpet & bricks Many mills were created near rivers in MA, including in Lowell, Ma named after francis cabot Lowell

6 Industries in the Northeast
The Lowell mills would hire young, unmarried women to run the spinning and weaving machines. They were promised a safe and moral environment plus a stable income After room and board the women would make around $2 per week (72 hours) which was good $ because basic goods only cost pennies The women would work 6 days a week, 12 hours per day – from dawn till 7 at night Women were selected to work because they required a lower wage then men (about half) Most factory workers were women until the 1840’s when Irish immigrants were unable to find better paying jobs

7 The growth of cities The ne was full of young people looking for work because farming was limited Some went west but most went to cities, the population of cities doubled in a 30 year period Urban life differed greatly due to the lack of time spent at home. If someone got needed medical care, education or care for the elderly they were by themselves until hospitals and schools were built. A growing number of urban poor people lived in tenements, or crowded apartments with lower standards of living (poor sanitation, safety and comfort) The cities grew too fast and disease (cholera) spread rapidly due to contaminated water

8 Labor disputes for factories
Many factories paid their workers low wages, and did not provide housing or food. Before long their workers began to demand these from their bosses Workers complained about long hours and low wages – there was no government set minimum wage Their only choice was to strike, or have a work stoppage During the period of growing labor activity the first labor union, an organization of workers formed to protect the interests by negotiating to resolve issues such as wages, hiring practices, and working conditions These unions quickly died out as factory owners went to court and got rulings that outlawed labor organizations

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