Presentation on theme: "Uma Tenure and Regulatory Reforms: Lessons and Future Steps in Asia September 24-25 2010."— Presentation transcript:
Uma Lele @Forest Tenure and Regulatory Reforms: Lessons and Future Steps in Asia September 24-25 2010
The “External” Background to National and Local Efforts Growing share of developing countries in GHG emissions A third of GHG Emissions from agriculture and forestry Stalled Climate Change Negotiations, yet REDD + has considerable momentum? Evolution from RED to REDD to REDD+ = Environment+ Development? Rapid Innovation in Climate and (Forest) Carbon Finance but largely focused on mitigation? China’s cutting edge national innovation and change effort in Forest Management has combined Environment + Development Focused learning from itself and others This conference and other such efforts can help to bring China and others together for the benefit of China as well as other countries.
Key Questions What Does the International Environmental Architecture look like today? What do evaluations of international organizations concerned with the environment tell us about performance of forest interventions, their adequacy and effectiveness to address the complex issues of climate change Where Do REDD and REDD + Schemes fit into Current Rapidly Changing Global Environment? Under What Types of Forest and Agricultural Tenures? Improved Forest Governance/Enforcement taking place in many countries?
Recent Developments in External Environment Financial Crisis Carbon Prices down Increased Recognition of International Price and Market Volatility Increased Risks, Uncertainties of Interlinked International Commodity (including carbon) Prices? Climate Change itself Affecting Forests and Agriculture Slowing Rates of Deforestation? Trees outside Forests Increasing? Seeing Trees from Forests is the Challenge for REDD+ and For Climate Change Agreement What about Other Sectors?
Land Scape Approach Needed to Address Forest and Agricultural Management at National and Global Levels Sustainable Agricultural Intensification to Reduce Private Land Use for Food and Agricultural Production? Land set aside for conservation = reducing agricultural expansion, cropland retirement and forest conservation, i.e.“land-diversion schemes” “use-restricting”? Changes in Forest Management Without Use Restriction through Collective Action? Forest Margins Degraded Forest Lands Deforested Lands through reforestation
(Sustainable) Agricultural Intensification On Private Lands: A Neglected Area in REDD+? Green Revolution in Asia “saved” 150 million hectares of potential area expansion Mixed Cropping Systems including Agro-Forestry and Fruit Trees: To meet Domestic Food, Fodder, Fuel wood and Soil Fertility Needs Strong on Socio-economic Benefits But Concerns Weak on Biodiversity, Carbon and other Environmental benefits? Increased input use, a la “Green Revolution” may be environmentally unsustainable— increased economic profitably could lead to land expansion Few technologies to produce more with less inputs? WB Evaluation Of International Agricultural Technology Assessment
Rich Forest lands: Protected or Conservation Areas: Successful at Scale High on Environmental Services: Carbon Biodiversity Watershed Protection Soil Conservation Cost Effective on Design and Implementation Depending on Remoteness, Lack of Access and Population Densities Mixed or Low on Social Benefits Income, livelihoods Employment, Energy Use, Low on Economic Benefits Supply and Demand of Forest Products GEF OPS 4+ WB Forthcoming but Still no systematic impact evaluations of protected areas
Payments for Environmental Services: Private (and Community?) Lands- Costa Rica, Brazil, China and Others? Large on Conservation Benefits? Government and Donor Finances Design and Implementation Costs Sustainability of Finances? No Systematic Cost Benefit or Impact Analysis
Community Forestry: Collective action Overcomes “tragedy of commons”?: Intact Forests, Managed woodlands, Degraded forest and wood lands Deforested Lands Tenure Types Community Lands Public Lands Types of Rights to: Land, Trees Forest Products Biodiversity Carbon Other indigenous rights Successful At Scale in Mexico, Based on 152 studies in several continents when Collective Action kicks in at Community level Degradation is slower Regeneration is faster Than without Collective Action Better Forest Governance Improves Forest Outcomes Elsewhere on Small Scale? Sustainable At Scale beyond LAC?
Governance Issues Daunting at National Scale as Evidenced in Governance Indicators in FCPF countries Contested Property Rights Unequal distribution of economic and political power Unequal Voice Who Owns What? Who has What Rights? Safeguards? World Bank Evaluation of Safeguards Which standards? International Standards? Domestic Standards? Transparency? How do we assess domestic political will for reforms to achieve scale effects?
Key Messages of Next Slides Until 2005 Asia (mostly) gained forest cover while Latin America and Africa lost it Area allocated to protection and conservation increased Share of Area Designated for Production Declined Plantation Forestry increased most in Asia
Summary Findings Fragmented International Architecture Far too few resources relative to the challenge Too much competition, too little cooperation based on substance Diverse Procedures Lacking in Cohesion Too little Funds for Systematic Analysis and Learning Lessons Far Few Resources for Developing Countries’ Nationals to Conduct Cross Country Comparative Research to Learn from Each Other