Presentation on theme: "African Americans in the New Nation (1783-1820) Part II Black Leaders, the War of 1812, and the Missouri Compromise."— Presentation transcript:
African Americans in the New Nation (1783-1820) Part II Black Leaders, the War of 1812, and the Missouri Compromise
Black Leaders & Choices What paradoxical relationship did these elite have with America? Clergy members and entrepreneurs were prominent leaders in the black communities.
Black Leaders & Choices Richard Allen organized the AME church, opened schools for blacks, wrote against slavery & prejudice, and provided refuge for fugitive slaves. He also presided over the 1 st black national convention in 1830. Absalom Jones was also an abolitionist and 1 st black to petition Congress. He argued that slavery violated the spirit of the U.S. Constitution. Prince Hall owned a leather dressing and catering company in Boston. Peter Williams was a New York tobacco merchant, and James Forten was one of the most successful black entrepreneurs in the U.S. Black leaders of this era embodied patriotism, religious conviction, organizational skills, intellect, and antislavery activism.
Migration Another option for African Americans was to migrate out of America and establish their own societies free of white prejudice. In 1787, Freetown was established in Sierra Leone by the British as a refuge for former slaves. Some Americans proposed the settlement of western North America or the Caribbean Islands. What obstacles got in the way of black migration? 1) Cost 2) Difficult to organize 3) Foreign negotiations Prince Hall petitioned the MA legislature in 1787 to support black Bostonians to establish a colony in Africa. In 1816 they organized the American Colonization Society, and this group established transport for African Americans to Liberia in 1820.
Migration Paul Cuffe was the major black advocate for migration. He argued that colonization would end the Atlantic slave trade, spread Christianity, create a refuge for free black people, and make a profit. Cuffe’s support of the colonization and migration effort made several black leaders consider migration as a viable option.
Slave Uprisings Slavery in the south became a harsh realization as the cotton production spread west and new slaves continued to enter the region. While some remained loyal to masters, many resorted to resistance through sabotage and escape, and some through violence. Two large rebellions occurred in the early 19 th century: 1)Gabriel Prosser’s in 1800 (Richmond) 2)Charles Deslondes in 1811 (New Orleans) How did these rebellions differ from earlier rebellions? The revolutionary principles influenced these rebellions, making them not about personal grievances, but rather about ending slavery due to its violation of natural rights.
The White Southern Reaction The Haitian Revolution, led by Toussaint Louverture, caused several masters to flee Haiti and move to the southern U.S. These slaves brought the ideals of revolution with them. Slaves regarded Louverture as a black George Washington. Although both Prosser’s and Deslondes’s rebellions failed, they left a lasting impact on both slaves and white southerners. The white southerners feared further uprisings and strengthened the bonds of slavery. They also viewed the idea of a race war as inevitable if emancipation occurred. Although Gabriel’s network perpetuated the message of a promised liberation, the institution of slavery became further entrenched.
The War of 1812 The British military support for American Indians in the Old Northwest, American desire to annex Canada, and British interference with American ships trading with Europe drew the U.S. into war. White prejudice and the fear of a black revolt led to Southern states refusing to enlist black men. Also, the absence of a British threat in the north kept them from mobilizing black troop until after 1813. The British initiated black support when they invaded the Chesapeake region in 1813 and promised slaves freedom. These black soldiers would help burn down Washington D.C. as well as attack Baltimore. As the British approached NY & PA, they began actively recruiting blacks and promised freedom to slaves that joined while compensating masters. James Forten, Richard Allen and Absalom Jones raised a “Black Brigade”
The Missouri Compromise The sectional issues between the North and South were revived in 1815. This was due to innovations in transportation and production along with the disappearance of slavery in the north. The north and south were dividing rapidly. The admission of Missouri in 1819 as a slave state struck fear into the north that this would lead to the further extension of slavery into the unorganized territories of the Louisiana territory. Henry Clay came up with a compromise in 1820, admitting Missouri as a slave state, Maine as a free state, and drawing a national boundary line at 36°30’ north latitude which delineated where slavery would exist. This would only appease the slave and free states for a brief time, and would lead to an intensified black and white antislavery militancy in the south.
Conclusions The Northern & Southern states began to divide harshly in the early 19 th century as the promise of freedom in the north was polarized from the tightening of bondage in the south. Blacks created their own communities to advance the religious, social, economic, and political needs of their own people– but the mass of blacks in the U.S. remained in bondage. The revolts in the south showed how revolutionary principles had not been forgotten by the slaves, yet it also caused whites in these regions to believe that slavery needed to be permanent. HW: Review questions on Ch. 4-5 Test on Thursday!