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Available for download here: http://irena.org/remap/IRENA_REmap_2030_Biomass_paper_2014.pdf Email: firstname.lastname@example.org@irena.org
Background and objective REmap 2030 shows that biomass is a key resource in both the power and end-use sectors if the worldwide share of renewable energy is to be doubled by 2030. In 2010 around 80% of all renewable energy consumed in final energy was in the form of biomass, with half coming from traditional uses of biomass for heating and cooking IRENA prepared a working paper on bioenergy to analyze the bioenergy demand, supply and trade potentials as well as its supply costs at country and sector levels Affordability, supply security and sustainable sourcing of biomass are major concerns For each application (power generation, heating, transport fuel) the realizable potential of bioenergy is estimated The supply potential to meet this demand is estimated for seven types of feedstock as well as the related supply costs based on the bottom-up analysis of 116 countries The working paper also elaborates on the barriers to deployment and the technology and policy needs to realize these ambitious potentials
Process for identifying technology options in REmap 2030 REmap identifies renewable energy technology options that substitute conventional energy technologies, or traditional uses of biomass.
Current bioenergy use by sector Current global biomass use reached 56 EJ per year of which 62% was consumed in buildings, 15% in industry, 9% in transport, and 8% in the power and district heating sectors. Rapid growth was observed in transport sector amounting to 19%/year in the period 2000-2010 EJ
Bioenergy demand could double by 2030 If all the renewable energy options identified in REmap were implemented, primary biomass demand would double to 108 EJ/year by 2030. This would amount to 20% of global primary energy supply, and 60% of total final renewable energy use. Increased use of LIQUID BIOFUEL and CHP, reduction of TRADITIOAL BIOMASS are the major contributor for this transition.
Key factors to determine biomass feedstock supply Supply potential for primary bioenergy feedstocks is estimated by grouping different kinds of biomass into two major categories, namely “primary bioenergy” and “biomass residues & waste” Primary supply potential is based on “total land area and competing land use” and biomass residue & waste is based on the developments in “population and economic activity” (Primary determinant) -Consumption volume of main product (Affected by) -Population and economic activity (Primary determinant) -Land availability (Affected by) -Total land area -Competing land use
Is there enough biomass feedstock to meet growing demand in 2030? With the exception of Asia (accounting for 40% of the global demand), all regions can meet their demand from domestic biomass sources Whereas regions can meet their demand, individual countries may not fully meet their demand and will rely on trade from countries in the same region or even beyond
Biomass supply potentials by feedstock and region in 2030 Global biomass supply is estimated to reach 97-147 EJ/yr. Key feedstock and regions are: Africa: energy crops (5-7 EJ); Asia: residues & waste (15-32 EJ); North America: energy crops (7 EJ) and fuel wood (3 EJ); Latin America: energy crops (16 EJ); Europe: fuel wood (0.3-13 EJ) and energy crops (7 EJ)
Biomass feedstock supply volume and cost in 2030 Processing residues (USD 3-4 per GJ), harvesting residue (USD 5-6 per GJ), energy crop and wood resources (USD 7-17 per GJ) International trade of bioenergy could reach 23-43 EJ/year (energy crop and wood resource)
Summary of findings Biomass has an auspicious future with potential in all sectors, and demand doubling by 2030 to represent 60% of total renewable energy use Biomass applications will change over time, nearly a third will be used for power and district heat generation, 30% for liquid biofuels production, the remainder for heating/cooking in buildings and industry Global biomass supply is estimated to reach 97-147 EJ and international bioenergy trade to 20-40% of the global bioenergy demand by 2030 Domestic supply cost ranges between USD 3 and 17 per GJ Many sustainability and technology issues need to be researched in order to meet the demand and supply potentials estimated in this working paper Realizing a sustainable and affordable bioenergy system requires a mix of energy and resource policies at national and international levels as well as a diversification of the renewable energy system to reduce increasing dependency on bioenergy resources