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Understanding Management First Canadian Edition Slides prepared byJanice Edwards College of the Rockies Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Managerial Ethics and Corporate Social ResponsibilityChapter 4 Managerial Ethics and Corporate Social Responsibility
Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.Learning Objectives Define ethics and explain how ethical behaviour relates to behaviour governed by law and free choice. Explain the utilitarian, individualism, moral rights, and justice approaches for evaluating ethical behaviour. Describe how individual and organizational factors shape ethical decision making. Define corporate social responsibility and how to evaluate it along economic, legal, ethical, and discretionary criteria. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Learning Objectives (Cont’d)Learning Objectives (Cont’d) Identify important stakeholders for an organization and discuss how managers balance the interests of various stakeholders. Describe four organizational approaches to environmental responsibility, and explain the philosophy of sustainability. Discuss how ethical organizations are created through ethical leadership and organizational structures and systems. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.Ethics The code of moral principles and values that govern the behaviours of a person or group with respect to what is right or wrong. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Ex. 4.1 Three Domains of Human ActionEx Three Domains of Human Action Domain of Certified Law (Legal Standard) Domain of Ethics (Social Standard) Domain of Free Choice (Personal Standard) Amount of High Explicit Control Low Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.Ethical Dilemma A situation that arises when all alternative choices or behaviours have been deemed undesirable because of potential negative consequences, making it difficult to distinguish right from wrong. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Criteria for Ethical Decision MakingCriteria for Ethical Decision Making Most ethical dilemmas involve a conflict between needs of the part & whole: the individual versus the organization, or the organization versus society as a whole Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Four Considerations in Ethical Decision MakingFour Considerations in Ethical Decision Making Utilitarian Approach Individualism Approach Moral-Rights Approach Justice Approach Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.Utilitarian Approach Moral behaviour produces the greatest good for the greatest number. Computations can be very complex, simplifying them is considered appropriate. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Individualism ApproachIndividualism Approach Acts are moral when they promote the individual's best long-term interests. Individual self-direction paramount. People learn to accommodate each other in their own long-term interest. Individualism is believed to lead to honesty & integrity since that works best in the long run. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.Moral Rights Approach Asserts that human beings have fundamental rights and liberties. An ethically correct decision is one that best maintains the rights of those people affected by them. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Moral Rights ConsiderationsMoral Rights Considerations The right of free consent The right to privacy The right of freedom of conscience The right of free speech The right to due process The right to life & safety Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.Justice Approach Moral decisions must be based on standards of equity, fairness, and impartiality. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Justice Approach (Cont’d)Justice Approach (Cont’d) Distributive justice requires that different treatment of people not be based on arbitrary characteristics. Procedural justice requires that rules be administered fairly. Compensatory justice argues that individuals should be compensated for the cost of their injuries by the party responsible. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Factors affecting ethical choicesThe Manager stage of moral development The Organization values adopted within the organization Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Ex. 4.2 Three Levels of Personal Moral DevelopmentEx Three Levels of Personal Moral Development SOURCES: Based on L. Kahlberg, “Moral Stages and Moralization: The Cognitive-Developmental Approach, in Moral Development and behaviour: Theory, Research, and Social Issues, ed. T. Lickona (New York: Holt, Rinehart, and Winston, 1976), 31-53; and Jill W. Graham, “Leadership, Moral Development and Citizenship behaviour,” Business Ethics Quarterly 5, no. 1 (January 1995), Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.Ex Questions for Analyzing a Company’s Cultural Impact on Ethics (Adapted) Identify the organization’s heroes. What are some important organizational rituals? What are the ethical messages sent to new entrants into the organization—must they obey authority at all costs? Does analysis of organizational stories and myths reveal individuals who stand up for what is right, or is conformity the valued characteristic? Does language exist for discussing ethical concerns? What informal socialization processes exist? SOURCE: Linda Klebe Trevino, “A Cultural Perspective on Changing and Developing Organizational Ethics,” in Research in Organizational Change and Development, ed. R. Woodman and W. Pasmore (Greenwich, Conn: JAI Press, 1990), 4. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
What is Social Responsibility?What is Social Responsibility? The obligation of organizational management to make decisions and take actions that will enhance the welfare and interests of society as well as the organization. Many social responsibilities issues are ambiguous with respect to right and wrong. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Organizational StakeholdersAny person or group within or outside the organization that has a stake in the organization’s performance. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Ex. 4.6 The Shades of Corporate GreenActivist Approach Actively conserve the environment Stakeholder Approach Address multiple stakeholder concerns Market Approach Respond to customers Legal Approach Satisfy legal requirements regarding environmental conservation Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd. SOURCE: Based on R.E. Freeman, J. Pierce, and R. Dodd, Shades of Green: Ethics and the Environment (New York: Oxford University Press, 1995). 3-21 Copyright © 2006 by South-Western, a division of Thomson Learning. All rights reserved.
Ex. 4.7 Criteria of Corporate Social PerformanceEx Criteria of Corporate Social Performance SOURCES: Based on Archie B. Carroll, “A Three-Dimensional Conceptual Model of Corporate Performance,” Academy of Management Review 4(1979), 499; and “The Pyramid of Corporate Social Responsibility: Toward the Moral Management of Corporate Stakeholders,” Business Horizons 34 (July-August 1991), 42. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.Code of Ethics A formal statement of the organization’s values regarding ethics and social issues; it communicates to employees what the company stands for. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.Ethical Structures Ethics committees: A group of executives appointed to oversee company ethics. Chief ethics officer: A company executive who oversees all aspects of ethics and legal compliance, including establishing and broadly communicating standards, ethics training, dealing with exceptions or problems, and advising senior managers in the ethical and compliance aspects of decisions. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
Ethical Structures (Cont’d)Ethical Structures (Cont’d) Ethics training programs help employees deal with ethical questions and translate the values stated in a code of ethics into everyday behaviour. Copyright © 2009 Nelson Education Ltd.
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