2 Plans Abraham Lincoln – The 10% Plan Offered to pardon any Confederate who took an oath to the Union Denied pardons to Confederate military personnel and government officials Permitted states to form state governments after 10% of the voters swore an allegiance to the Union States could then hold elections and participate fully in the Union
Andrew Johnson – Presidential Reconstruction (After Lincoln) Pardoned southerners who swore an allegiance to the Union Permitted states to hold a constitutional convention (without Lincoln’s 10%) States were required to void secession, abolish slavery and ratify the 13 th Amendment (to end slavery) States could then hold elections and participate fully in the Union
New Life for Blacks Freedoms – Movement – Land ownership – Worship – Learning Freedman’s Bureau – Gave food, clothing and medicine to freed slaves – Set up schools for freed slaves – Established hospitals for freed slaves
Black Codes Established by white state governments Curfews Vagrancy laws Labor contracts Land restrictions
Congressional Reconstruction Radical Republicans - harsh on South Wanted to punish South… treat as conquered territory Congress passed the Reconstruction Act Placed South under military rule Ordered the South to hold elections for Constitutional Conventions and allow blacks to vote Temporarily barred Southerners who supported Confederacy from voting South had to guarantee equal rights to all citizens Southern states had to ratify the 14 th Amendment Any state not in Union by 1869 had to also ratify the 15 th Amendment It passed because Republicans held a majority in the Congress
President vs. Congress Johnson fired Secretary of War, Edwin Stanton Stanton was a friend of the Republicans Stanton was to preside over military rule of the South Congress impeached Johnson Congress said firing “unconstitutional” – broke the Tenure of Office Act Johnson escaped by ONE vote!
Aftermath Ulysses S. Grant Won support of Republicans Became President in 1868 Rutherford B. Hayes Became President amid much confusion Removed federal troops from the South Blanche K. Bruce became first black man in the Senate
“Undesirables” in the South Carpetbaggers – Northern Republicans who moved to the South. The South saw them as trying to make a fast buck Scalawags – White, Southern Republicans seen as traitors The South blamed Reconstruction for Carpetbaggers, Scalawags and Freedmen