Presentation on theme: "Chapter 4 CROSS-CUTTING AND NEW"— Presentation transcript:
1 Chapter 4 CROSS-CUTTING AND NEW ISSUES§1 Regionalism: friends or rivals?1. What is Regionalism?Referred to regional economic integration agreements.Examples: (P51)
2 2. Effectiveness of the Regional trading arrangements --- Positive:(1) Support the WTO’s multilateral tradingsystem,(2) Abolish or reduce barriers on trade withinthe group.
3 --- Potentially Negative: (1) may threaten the multilateral tradingsystem,(2) the trade may be more restrictive to Non-members3. WTO’s concernOn 6 February 1996, the WTO General Council created the Regional Trade Agreements Committee. Its purpose is to examine :
4 (1) whether they are consistent with WTO rules.(2) how regional arrangements might affect themultilateral trading system, and(3)what the relationship between regional andmultilateral arrangements might be.
5 §2 The environment: a new high profile 1.Where is the environment issue concerned?(1) The WTO has no specific agreementdealing with the environment,(2) A number of the WTO agreements includeprovisions dealing with environmentalconcerns,and
6 (3) sustainable development and environmental protection are stated in the preamble to the Agreement Establishing the WTO.2.The committee in the WTO concerning the issue:Trade and Environment Committee
7 3. The principles of the committee’s work: (1) only competent to deal with trade(2) If the committee does identify problems, itssolutions must continue to uphold theprinciples of the WTO trading system.4. Issues concerned and concluded by the committee so far:
8 (1)WTO and environmental agreements: how are they related?-- the basic WTO principles of non-discrimination and transparency do not conflict with trade measures needed to protect the environment, including actions taken under the environmental agreements
9 -- using the provisions of an international environmental agreement is better than one country trying on its own to change other countries’ environmental policies-- effective ways to protect the environment and having an impact on trade :helping countries acquire environmentally-friendly technology, giving them financial assistance, providing training, etc.
10 (2) Disputes: where should they be handled? -- try to use the environmental agreement(both sides to the dispute have signed thatagreement )-- WTO would provide the only possible forum(if one side in the dispute has not signed theenvironment agreement)
11 (3) Eco-labelling: good, if it doesn’t discriminate labelling used to describe whether for the way a product is produced (as distinct from the product itself) is environmentally-friendly.
12 (4) Transparency: information without too much paperwork WTO members should provide as much information as possible about the environmental policies they have adopted or actions they may take, when these can have a significant impact on trade.
13 (5) Domestically prohibited goods: dangerous chemicals, etcExported from developed countries to thedeveloping countries, which should beinformed the hazard or toxin of the goods(6) Liberalization and sustainable development: good for each other
14 (7) Intellectual property, services: some scope for studyMore work is scheduled on this.
15 §5 Labour standards: highly controversial “core labour standards”:essential standards applied to the way workers are treated.2. Trade and labour rights: deferred to the ILO (International Labour Organization )
16 (1)The debate outside the WTO has raised three broad questions: -- The legal question:-- The analytical question:-- The institutional question:(2) Recognition:core labour standards, should not be used for protectionism