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Lecture: The Founding of the Nation Unit 1: U.S. History Standard 11.1
11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence. 1. Describe the Enlightenment and the rise of democratic ideas as the context in which the nation was founded.
The Enlightenment an 18th-century European movement in which thinkers attempted to apply the principles of reason and the scientific method to all aspects of society.
Divine Right of Kings Social Contract Theory/ Natural Rights Philosophy GOD King People God People King The shift from the idea Divine Right of Kings to the Social Contract Theory was influenced by the Enlightened Philosophers.
Enlightenment Philosophers Montesquieu –3 branches of government –Innocent until proven guilty Voltaire –No religious persecution –Everyone is equal –Freedom of press and speech Rousseau –Democracy is a good form of gov’t.
John Locke 1632-1704 Natural Rights Philosophy –Law of nature Life, Liberty, Property –Unalienable: cannot be taken away Legitimate government –protect natural rights –Can be revoked (revolution) –social contract The people give consent for the government to protect them. –constitutional government
Why is the Enlightenment important? Enlightenment ideas were used by American colonists to justify their separation from England (American Revolution)
Standard 11.1.2 Analyze the ideological origins of the American Revolution, the Founding Fathers' philosophy of divinely bestowed unalienable natural rights, the debates on the drafting and ratification of the Constitution, and the addition of the Bill of Rights.
The Origins of the American Revolution If a government fails to protect the people’s rights, the people have a right of revolution. –John Locke …that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government… –Declaration of Independence
Causes: Political: –England’s neglect of the colonies –Taxation w/out representation –Limitation of individual rights Economic: –Taxation –Mercantilism –Trade restrictions –Free enterprise –Economic power
Thomas Paine’s pamphlet Common Sense swayed American colonists to declare independence.
The American Revolution
America Declares Independence
Effects: Colonies declare independence –The Declaration of Independence, 1776 Britain recognizes United States independence. George Washington emerges as a leader.
The Declaration of Independence 11.1 Students analyze the significant events in the founding of the nation and its attempts to realize the philosophy of government described in the Declaration of Independence.
Drafting the Declaration of Independence Committee of Five: –John Adams –Roger Sherman –Robert Livingston –Thomas Jefferson –Ben Franklin President of Continental Congress: –John Hancock Written by (Father of the Constitution): –James Madison
Committee: well-educated white men Non- represented: African Americans, women, working class, Loyalists, Native Americans Voting rights: white, male property owners
The Declaration of Independence July 4, 1776 Explained basic human rights and addressed their grievances against King George III. –Meant to explain to the nations of the world reasons for seeking independence from Britain (hoped to get their support)
We hold these Truths to be self-evident, that all Men are created equal, that the are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights that among these are Life, Liberty, and the Pursuit of Happiness – That to secure these Rights: Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just Powers from the Consent of the Governed, that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these Ends it is the Right of the People to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government…
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