3 I. Monarchy Abolished A. The French Republic - National Convention 1. Suffrage to all male citizens2. Voted to abolish monarchy3. Declared France a republicJacobins – Radical extreme left group that wants the end of the MonarchyThree Leaders- Robperrie, Danton, Marat.
4 I. Monarchy Abolished B. Death of the King and Queen 1. Louis XVI put on trial as a traitor2. January 21, King is beheadedWhy Kill the King? End one Regime and start a new. So that they old government can not come back in power. Ie Saddam Hussein.
5 II. The Convention Defends the Republic Problems:1. Country at war at all sides with Europe2. Vendee Region - priest led peasant rebellion against the government3. Sans-Culottes demanded relief from food shortages and inflationCounter Revolution – A revolution that wants to abolish the government that is in power because of a revolution. Ie – Insurgents.
8 The Republic DefendedCommittees were set up to organize the wartime effortCommittee of Public Safety – created to carry out the duties of governmentMain task was to save the revolution at home and abroadThey would later have totalitarian powersGeorges Danton
9 II. The Convention Defends the Republic B. Committee of Public Safety1. 12 member committee almost had absolute power2. Prepared France for all out war between rebels in the country and EuropeCounter Revolution – A revolution to revolt against the government that was installed by a revolution.Marie Antoinette was the first victim of the reign of terror.
12 II. The Convention Defends the Republic C. Robespierre1. Leader of the Committee of Public Safety2. “The Incorruptible”3. “Terror is only justice prompt, severe and inflexible”4. “Liberty cannot be secured unless criminals lose their heads.”
14 New NameMeaningTime PeriodVendemaireVintageSeptember 22 – October 21BrumaireFogOctober 22 – November 20FrimaireFrostNovember 21 – December 20NivoseSnowDecember 21 – January 19PluvioseRainJanuary 20 – February 18VentoseWindFebruary 19 – March 20GerminalBuddingMarch 21 – April 19FlorealFlowersApril 20 – May 19PrairialMeadowMay 20 – June 18MessidorHarvestJune 19 – July 18ThermidorHeatJuly 19 – August 17FructidorFruitAugust 18 – September 21
16 II. The Convention Defends the Republic D. The Reign of Terror1. 40,000 people were killed2. Guillotine became a symbol of horror3. Reign of Terror consumed its own - July 1794 Robespierre was arrested and executed
17 III. Reaction and the Directory 1. Moderates gain control2. Constitution of 1795a. set up a 5 man Directory and a 2 house legislatureb. held power from
18 III. Reaction and the Directory B. Problems with the Directory1. Dictatorial2. War with Austria and Great Britain3. Corruption4. Renewed revival of royalist feelings
21 The Fall of Robespierre Replaced the worship of “Reason” with the “Cult of the Supreme Being”Based on Rousseau’s vision of morality and civic religionWhen more suspicions were proclaimed by Robespierre the Convention began to shout backJuly 17 – 9th of Thermidor – Robespierre was arrested – and executed
22 End of the TerrorWinter of 1794 Robespierre began to attack the enrages – extreme Sans-culottesRobespierre also turned against other republicans in the Convention – Jacques DantonRobespierre accused these men of profiting from the revolution and disloyalty to moral virtueAll threatened his positionLaw of 22 Prairial – tribunal can convict subjects without substantial evidence
23 IV. Results of the Revolution Social Reform1. Abolished slavery2. Religious toleration3. Social systems that helped veterans, poor, and widowsNationalismPride in one’s countryLa Marseillaise - national anthem