2 Consuls Rulers of Rome Served one year term Senate Representative body composed of patricians Patricians- Noble families Tribal Assembly Representative body for plebeians Plebeians- lower class
Provided political and social rights for the plebeians
Extensive Road system Aqueducts Forum Coliseum
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus Gave the poor grain and small plots of free land Gauis Marius Recruited an army from the poor and homeless Gave them land for their service Professional standing army
Class tensions Gracchus brothers reforms did not work Civil War Breaks out 88-82 B.C.E New generals emerge Sulla vs. Marius Sulla named Dictator Tries to Reform Rome Reforms ultimately fail Sulla relinquishes his power back to the Senate
Group of three rulers 60 BC – Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey dominate Rome for 10 years Breakdown of Triumvirate: Julius Caesar governing Gaul Crassus sent to Persia Pompei stays in Rome Caesar marches on Rome 49 B.C.E. Reforms as an Absolute Ruler Death- Ides of March 44 B.C.E.
Ecomony 90% engaged in agriculture Luxury items obtained through trade Denarius – common coinage Roman Roads Government Soldiers of Roman Army left in the provinces to govern Often intermarried with locals Locals allowed to keep customs and religious practices
Roman empire was an empire with long, exposed landward frontiers. African Coastal provinces flanked by deserts False sense of security Europe never satisfactorily defended Even after 100 years of conquest/expansion Most crucial mistake Caesar made was not expanding beyond the Rhine river and accepting those cultures Would be bitter about not being included in the Roman Empire