20 Hellenistic Philosophers Cynics Diogenesignore social conventions & avoid luxuries.citizens of the world.live a humble, simple life.Epicurians Epicurusavoid pain & seek pleasure.all excess leads to pain!politics should be avoided.
21 Hellenistic Philosophers Stoics Zenonature is the expansion of divine will.concept of natural law.get involved in politics, not for personal gain, but to perform virtuous acts for the good of all.true happiness is found in great achievements.
22 Hellenism: The Arts & Sciences Scientists / Mathematicians:Aristarchus heliocentric theory.Euclid geometryArchimedes pulleyHellenistic Art:More realistic; less ideal than Hellenic art.Showed individual emotions, wrinkles, and age!
29 The Mythical Founding of Rome: Romulus & Remus Rome was founded by the demi- god twins who are left out by their uncle. A she wolf finds them and suckles/ cares for them eventually they establish a city with their followers
39 Reform Leaders Military Reformer Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus the poor should be given grain and small plots of free land.Military ReformerGaius Mariusrecruited an army from the poor and homeless.professional standing army.
41 Crossing the Rubicon, 49 BC The Die is Cast!The river is notable as Roman law forbade any General to cross the Rubicon southward with a legion. The river marked the boundary between the Roman province of Cisalpine Gaul to the north and Italy proper to the south; the law thus protected the republic from internal military threat. A Roman General was thus obliged to disband his army before crossing the Rubicon, otherwise both he and his men were guilty of high treason and sacrilege, and automatically condemned to death. When Julius Caesar crossed the Rubicon with his army in 49 BC, to make his way to Rome, he broke that law and made armed conflict inevitable. Caesar uttered the famous phrase ("the die has been cast"). Caesar's decision for swift action forced Pompey, the lawful consul, and a large part of the Senate to flee Rome in fear. Since Caesar was eventually victorious, the punishment due him became a moot issue.
42 The First Triumvirate Julius Caesar Marcus Licinius Crassus Gaius Magnus PompeyTriumvirate= political regime dominated by three powerful individuals
43 Beware the Ides of March! 44 BCE March 15 (day of full moon)Day Caesar was killed in the senate by Cassius and Brutus (60 other co conspirators)
44 The Second Triumvirate Octavian AugustusMarc AntonyMarcus Lepidus