Presentation on theme: "The Growth of Globalization Since the end of WWII, world trade has grown much faster than world output Openness Index = (Exports + Imports)/GNP The."— Presentation transcript:
The Growth of Globalization Since the end of WWII, world trade has grown much faster than world output Openness Index = (Exports + Imports)/GNP The index is a measure of trade Since 1945 (over 64 years) (Exports + Imports) > GWP GNP = gross national product GWP = gross world product
Openness Index for select nations over time graph taken from James Gerber, 2008, International Economics, 4th Edition, Pearson Education
The U.K., and the European Continent have traditionally been open nations The Dutch international trade patterns have traditionally been leading others Traditional Dutch flower auctions Engines Services Processing & packaging produce Amsterdam & other import/export centers
France and Germany French agriculture -- processing o But “common agricultural policy” import protection --- is a contention in World trade Organization negotiations German engineering & manufacturing Movement to common market Western market relative to the Russian market – do East European nations go west or go to Russia?
Japanese export expansion Export expansion policies and exchange rate policy Imports come into Japan primarily via state import houses -- import restrictions Efficient manufacturing to reduce cost of exports to other nations
China and other Asian nation export expansion policies China -- exchange rate policy and export expansion policies --- manufacturing Taiwan – export expansion policies and manufacturing efficiency Singapore – the “city state” --- assembly and manufacturing center Malaysia – textiles, synthetics Hong Kong – trade center --- HK has their own currency separate of the PRC
The U. S. Not really an open trade state until the close of the gold window in 1973 The big market --- so imports loom large FDI – foreign direct investment by U.S. firms U. S. agriculture now an exporting force Inputs come in from all over the world to U.S. manufacturing Isolationist and high tariff policies during the 1930’s – 1950’s
Issues in the international economy TRADE DEFICITS TRADE DEFICITS REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS REGIONAL TRADE AGREEMENTS RESOLUTION OF TRADE CONFLICTS RESOLUTION OF TRADE CONFLICTS GAINS FROM TRADE – DEVELOPED VS. DEVELOPING NATIONS GAINS FROM TRADE – DEVELOPED VS. DEVELOPING NATIONS THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS THE ROLE OF INTERNATIONAL INSTITUTIONS EXCHANGE RATES & THE MACROECONOMY EXCHANGE RATES & THE MACROECONOMY FINANCIAL CRISES FINANCIAL CRISES CRISES & REFORM IN LATIN AMERICA CRISES & REFORM IN LATIN AMERICA DEBT & CAPITAL FLOWS DEBT & CAPITAL FLOWS EXPORT EXPANSION EXPORT EXPANSION CHINA & INDIA COME TO TOWN CHINA & INDIA COME TO TOWN WHAT OF THE EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS? WHAT OF THE EASTERN EUROPEAN NATIONS? WHAT ABOUT RUSSIA WHAT ABOUT RUSSIA WHAT’S TO BECOME OF THE ENVIRONMENT & THE RULE ON NATURAL RESOUCES? WHAT’S TO BECOME OF THE ENVIRONMENT & THE RULE ON NATURAL RESOUCES?