2 Learning Objective Menu LO 9.1 Instinct and Drive-Reduction Approaches to MotivationLO 9.2 Three Types of NeedsLO 9.3 Arousal and Incentive Approaches to MotivationLO 9.4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsLO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing HungerLO 9.6 Some Problems in Eating BehaviorLO 9.7 Three Elements of EmotionLO 9.8 James-Lange and Cannon-Bard Theories of EmotionLO 9.9 Cognitive Arousal Theory, Facial Feedback Hypothesis and Cognitive-Mediational Theory
3 LO 9.1 Instinct and Drive-Reduction Approaches to Motivation Motivation: the process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are metExtrinsic motivation: type of motivation in which a person performs an action because it leads to an outcome that is separate from or external to the person
4 Instinct Approaches to Motivation LO Instinct and Drive-Reduction Approaches to MotivationInstincts: the biologically determined and innate patterns of behavior that exist in both people and animalsInstinct approach: approach to motivation that assumes people are governed by instincts similar to those of animals
5 Drive-Reduction Theory of Motivation LO 9.1 Instinct and Drive-Reduction Approaches to MotivationNeed: a requirement of some material (such as food or water) that is essential for survival of the organismDrive: a psychological tension and physical arousal arising when there is a need that motivates the organism to act in order to fulfill the need and reduce the tension
6 Drive-Reduction Theory of Motivation LO 9.1 Instinct and Drive-Reduction Approaches to MotivationDrive-reduction theory: approach to motivation that assumes behavior arises from physiological needs that cause internal drives to push the organism to satisfy the need and reduce tension and arousalPrimary drives: those drives that involve needs of the body such as hunger and thirst
7 Drive-Reduction Theory of Motivation LO 9.1 Instinct and Drive-Reduction Approaches to MotivationAcquired (secondary) drives: those drives that are learned through experience or conditioning, such as the need for money or social approvalHomeostasis: the tendency of the body to maintain a steady state
8 Figure 9.1 Homeostasis In homeostasis, the body maintains balance in the body’s physical states. For example, this diagram shows how increased hunger (a state of imbalance) prompts a person to eat. Eating increases the level of glucose (blood sugar), causing the feelings of hunger to reduce. After a period without eating, the glucose levels become low enough to stimulate the hunger drive once again, and the entire cycle is repeated.
9 Three Types of NeedsLO 9.2 Three Types of NeedsNeed for achievement (nAch): a need that involves a strong desire to succeed in attaining goals—not only realistic ones, but also challenging onesNeed for affiliation (nAff): the need for friendly social interactions and relationships with othersNeed for power (nPow): the need to have control or influence over others
10 Arousal Approach to Motivation LO 9.3 Arousal and Incentive Approaches to MotivationStimulus motive: a motive that appears to be unlearned but causes an increase in stimulation, such as curiosityArousal theory: theory of motivation in which people are said to have an optimal (best or ideal) level of tension that they seek to maintain by increasing or decreasing stimulation
11 Arousal Approach to Motivation LO 9.3 Arousal and Incentive Approaches to MotivationYerkes-Dodson law: law stating performance is related to arousal; moderate levels of arousal lead to better performance than do levels of arousal that are too low or too highThis effect varies with the difficulty of the task; easy tasks require a high-moderate level, while more difficult tasks require a low-moderate level.
12 Arousal Approach to Motivation LO 9.3 Arousal and Incentive Approaches to MotivationSensation seeker: someone who needs more arousal than the average person
13 Figure 9.2 Arousal and Performance The optimal level of arousal for task performance depends on the difficulty of the task. We generally perform easy tasks well if we are at a high–moderate level of arousal (green) and accomplish difficult tasks well if we are at a low–moderate level (red).
15 Incentive Approaches to Motivation LO 9.3 Arousal and Incentive Approaches to MotivationIncentives: things that attract or lure people into actionIncentive approaches: theories of motivation in which behavior is explained as a response to the external stimulus and its rewarding properties
16 Incentive Approaches to Motivation LO 9.3 Arousal and Incentive Approaches to MotivationExpectancy-value theories: incentive theories that assume the actions of humans cannot be predicted or fully understood without understanding their beliefs, their values, and the importance that a person attaches to those beliefs and values at any given moment in time
17 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs LO 9.4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsSelf-actualization: according to Maslow, the point that is seldom reached at which people have sufficiently satisfied the lower needs and achieved their full human potentialPeak experiences: according to Maslow, times in a person’s life during which self-actualization is temporarily achieved
18 Figure 9.3 Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs Maslow proposed that human beings must fulfill the more basic needs, such as physical and security needs, before being able to fulfill the higher needs of self-actualization and transcendence.
19 Self-Determination Theory of Motivation LO 9.4 Maslow’s Hierarchy of NeedsSelf-determination theory (SDT): theory of human motivation in which the social context of an action has an effect on the type of motivation existing for the actionIntrinsic motivation: type of motivation in which a person performs an action because the act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal manner
20 LO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing Hunger Hunger: Bodily CausesLO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing HungerInsulin: a hormone secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by reducing the level of glucose in the bloodstream
21 LO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing Hunger Hunger: Bodily CausesLO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing HungerGlucagons: hormones that are secreted by the pancreas to control the levels of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates in the body by increasing the level of glucose in the bloodstreamWeight set point: the particular level of weight that the body tries to maintain
22 LO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing Hunger Hunger: Bodily CausesLO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing HungerBasal metabolic rate (BMR): the rate at which the body burns energy when the organism is resting
24 LO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing Hunger Hunger: Social CausesLO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing HungerSocial cues for when meals are to be eatenCultural customsFood preferencesUse of food as a comfort device or escape from unpleasantness
25 LO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing Hunger Hunger: Social CausesLO 9.5 Bodily Causes of Hunger and Social Factors Influencing HungerSome people may respond to the anticipation of eating by producing an insulin response, increasing the risk of obesity.
26 LO 9.6 Some Problems in Eating Behavior Eating ProblemsLO 9.6 Some Problems in Eating BehaviorObesitya condition in which the body weight of a person is 20 percent or more over the ideal body weight for that person’s height (actual percents vary across definitions)Anorexia Nervosaa condition in which a person reduces eating to the point that a weight loss of 15 percent below the ideal body weight or more occurs
27 Figure 9.4 Obese Laboratory Rat This rat has reached a high level of obesity because its ventromedial hypothalamus has been deliberately damaged in the laboratory. The result is a rat that no longer receives signals of being satiated, and so the rat continues to eat and eat and eat.
28 LO 9.6 Some Problems in Eating Behavior Eating ProblemsLO 9.6 Some Problems in Eating BehaviorBulimiaa condition in which a person develops a cycle of “binging,” or overeating enormous amounts of food at one sitting, and “purging,” or deliberately vomiting after eating
29 Biological Factors of Eating Problems LO 9.6 Some Problems in Eating BehaviorLeptin: a hormone that, when released into the bloodstream, signals the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food and reduces the appetite while increasing the feeling of being fullrole of leptin in obesitygenetics and obesityGenetics may play a part in anorexia and bulimia, as well as insensitivity to leptin.
30 LO 9.7 Three Elements of Emotion Emotion: the “feeling” aspect of consciousness; characterized by a certain physical arousal, a certain behavior that reveals the emotion to the outside world, and an inner awareness of feelingsDisplay rules: learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings
31 Figure 9.5 Facial Expressions of Emotion Facial expressions appear to be universal. For example, these faces are consistently interpreted as showing (a) anger, (b) fear, (c) disgust, (d) happiness, (e) surprise, and (f) sadness by people of various cultures from all over the world. Although the situations that cause these emotions may differ from culture to culture, the expression of particular emotions remains strikingly the same.
32 Common Sense Theory of Emotion LO 9.7 Three Elements of EmotionCommon sense theory of emotion: a stimulus leads to an emotion, which then leads to bodily arousal
33 Figure 9.6 Common Sense Theory of Emotion In the common sense theory of emotion, a stimulus (snarling dog) leads to an emotion of fear, which then leads to bodily arousal (in this case, indicated by shaking) through the autonomic nervous system (ANS).
34 James-Lange Theory of Emotion LO 9.8 James-Lange and Cannon-Bard Theories of EmotionJames-Lange theory of emotion: theory in which a physiological reaction leads to the labeling of an emotion
35 Figure 9.7 James-Lange Theory of Emotion In the James-Lange theory of emotion, a stimulus leads to bodily arousal first, which is then interpreted as an emotion.
36 Cannon-Bard Theory of Emotion LO 9.8 James-Lange and Cannon-Bard Theories of EmotionCannon-Bard theory of emotion: theory in which the physiological reaction and the emotion are assumed to occur at the same time
37 Figure 9.8 Cannon-Bard Theory of Stimulus First response Second response Emotion In the Cannon-Bard theory of emotion, a stimulus leads to activity in the brain, which then sends signals to arouse the body and interpret the emotion at the same time.
38 Cognitive Arousal Theory of Emotion LO 9.9 Cognitive Arousal Theory, Facial Feedback Hypothesis and Cognitive-Mediational TheoryCognitive arousal theory: theory of emotion in which both the physical arousal and the labeling of that arousal based on cues from the environment must occur before the emotion is experienced
39 Figure 9.9 Schachter-Singer Cognitive Arousal Theory of Emotion Schachter and Singer’s cognitive arousal theory is similar to the James-Lange theory but adds the element of cognitive labeling of the arousal. In this theory, a stimulus leads to both bodily arousal and the labeling of that arousal (based on the surrounding context), which leads to the experience and labeling of the emotional reaction.
40 Facial Feedback Hypothesis LO 9.9 Cognitive Arousal Theory, Facial Feedback Hypothesis and Cognitive-Mediational TheoryFacial feedback hypothesis: theory of emotion that assumes that facial expressions provide feedback to the brain concerning the emotion being expressed, which in turn causes and intensifies the emotion
41 Figure 9.10 Facial Feedback Theory of Emotion In the facial feedback theory of emotion, a stimulus such as this snarling dog causes arousal and a facial expression. The facial expression then provides feedback to the brain about the emotion. The brain then interprets the emotion and may also intensify it.
42 Cognitive Mediational Theory LO 9.9 Cognitive Arousal Theory, Facial Feedback Hypothesis and Cognitive-Mediational TheoryCognitive-mediational theory: theory of emotion in which a stimulus must be interpreted (appraised) by a person in order to result in a physical response and an emotional reaction
43 Figure 9.11 Lazarus’s Cognitive- Mediational Theory In Lazarus’s cognitive-mediational theory of emotion, a stimulus causes an immediate appraisal (e.g., “The dog is snarling and not behind a fence, so this is dangerous”). The cognitive appraisal results in an emotional response, which is then followed by the appropriate bodily response.
44 Figure 9.12 Comparison of Theories of Emotion These figures represent the six different theoriesof emotion as discussed in the text.
45 Figure 9.12 (continued) Comparison of Theories of Emotion These figures represent the six different theoriesof emotion as discussed in the text.
46 Three Brain Regions Coordinate Emotional Responses The hypothalamusvital link between higher-order cognition (forebrain) and the lower brain (homeostatic control of the body)The limbic system (amygdala)Two distinct neural circuits produce emotional responses, particularly fearThe cerebral cortexImportant for the subjective experience of emotions
47 Cognition and EmotionThe brain’s shortcut for emotions
51 Emotion - Lie Detectors PercentageInnocentpeopleGuilty8070605040302010Judged innocent by polygraphJudged guilty by polygraph50 Innocents50 Thieves1/3 of innocent declared guilty1/4 of guilty declared innocent (from Kleinmuntz & Szucko, 1984)
52 Subjective Well-Being self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with lifeused along with measures of objective well-beingphysical and economic indicators to evaluate people’s quality of life
53 Experiencing Emotion Does money buy happiness? Average per-person Year100%90%80%70%60%50%40%30%20%10%0%Averageper-personafter-tax incomein 1995 dollarsPercentagedescribingthemselves asvery happy$20,000$19,000$18,000$17,000$16,000$15,000$14,000$13,000$12,000$11,000$10,000$9,000$8,000$7,000$6,000$5,000$4,000Percentage very happyPersonal income
54 Experiencing Emotion Values and life satisfaction 0.6 0.4 0.2 Money LoveLife satisfaction0.60.40.20.0-0.2-0.4Importancescores
55 Experiencing Emotion However, Happiness Seems Not Much Researchers Have Found ThatHappy People Tend toHave high self-esteem(in individualistic countries)Be optimistic, outgoing, and agreeableHave close friendships or a satisfyingmarriageHave work and leisure that engagetheir skillsHave a meaningful religious faithSleep well and exerciseHowever, Happiness Seems Not MuchRelated to Other Factors, Such asAgeGender (women are more oftendepressed, but also more often joyful)Education levelsParenthood (having children or not)Physical attractiveness
56 Experiencing Emotion Adaptation-Level Phenomenon Relative Deprivation tendency to form judgments relative to a “neutral” levelbrightness of lightsvolume of soundlevel of incomedefined by our prior experienceRelative Deprivationperception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself