Presentation on theme: "10/23 Focus: 10/23 Focus: Chinese rulers followed the dynastic cycle. This was the understanding that dynasties would rise and fall over and over again."— Presentation transcript:
10/23 Focus: 10/23 Focus: Chinese rulers followed the dynastic cycle. This was the understanding that dynasties would rise and fall over and over again. Do Now: Do Now: – Define the term ethnocentrism and explain how geography lead to ethnocentrism in China
The Shang Dynasty 1650 B.C. Shang gain control of N. China Government – Ruled by Kings – Establish first dynasty A ruling family
The Shang Dynasty Religion – Polytheistic – Worshiped ancestors – Used oracle bones to try to communicate with them Bones inscribed with pictographs Priests could read them for messages from ancestors – Offered ancestors gifts for the afterlife
The Shang Dynasty written language – used pictograms symbols that represent pictures – Ideograms symbols that represent ideas. used on the Oracle Bones, but only few people learned how to read and write
The Shang Dynasty Early class systems small warrior class ruling over the peasants Patriarchal Society Male dominated
The Shang Dynasty Technology/Achievements/Developments: – Bronze production for weapons and ceremonial vessels (not tools) – chariots – Silk production – Irrigation systems
Closure What is a dynasty? Explain what oracle bones were. What is meant by term patriarchal?
The Zhou Dynasty 1029 -258 B.C. Overthrow the Shang – Told people that the gods had become angry with Shang misdeeds & Gods had chosen the Zhou to rule – Leads to the Mandate of Heaven King Wen, The founder of the Zhou dynasty
The Mandate of Heaven divine approval to rule Used by rulers to claim authority over people Was used to explain the dynastic cycle – New dynasties were good and just to the people – Overtime the dynasty became corrupt and unfair to the people – Lost approval of gods – New dynasty would take over
Zhou Government Zhou kings called themselves “Sons of Heaven Kings granted large areas of land to their supporters – Feudalism Local lords controlled their own land Owed military service to the ruler Feudal lords became the real holders of power in China
Zhou Accomplishments Built roads and canals to expand trade Silk production – Produced from cocoons of silkworms – Became a major export Made the first books – Bound thin strips of bamboo & wood – The I Ching – Book of Songs Astronomy – Developed an accurate calendar – Studied eclipses and movement of planets
Closure How was the Mandate of Heaven used to justify the overthrow of a government? What was the dynastic cycle?
10/24 Focus: 10/24 Focus: – The Great Wall of China was created during the Qin Dynasty and is an example of Chinese ethnocentrism. – The Han Dynasty built a large civilization by using roads. They expanded trade routes and made a great deal of money that helped them expand. Do Now: Do Now: – Explain the Mandate of Heaven
Qin Dynasty 221 B.C. Shi Huangdi – “The First Emperor” – Conquers the Zhou Zhou government was weak Feudal lords divided and at war
Centralized Power Shi Huangdi centralizes power and establishes autocracy – Power from one central area – Autocracy A government in which the ruler has absolute or total power – Abolishes the feudal states – Divided the country into military districts – Harsh rules Rules about being on time Forced labor to build public works High taxes
The Great Wall of China Extended from the Yellow Sea to the Gobi Desert Forced labor used to construct the wall Ethnocentrism Built to keep out nomads and invaders Keep out foreign influences Limits cultural diffusion
The famous Terracotta Soldiers were built to guard the Emperor’ s tomb
The Han Dynasty 206 B.C. -220 B.C Shi Huangdi dies in 210 B.C. People revolt against the Qin Liu Bang established the Han dyansty – Peasant leader – Takes the name Gau Zu – Reduced taxes – Changed harsh Qin laws
Han Rule Emperor Wudi 441 B.C Strengthens China’s government and economy – Establishes civil service system Government workers Civil service exam was required to work in government Based on teachings of Confucius – Opened the Silk Road
The Silk Road Becomes a major trade route – Stretches from China to Mediterranean Sea Brings China in contact with other civilizations – Cultural diffusion – Buddhism from India New ideas, foods, animals, and products are spread along the silk road
Han Golden Age Expansion of trade and strong government under Han rule brought peace and prosperity Technological Advances – Made paper from wood pulp – Iron production – Water powered mills – Invented: Wheelbarrow Fishing reel Rudder
Han Golden Age Advances in Science and Medicine – Acupuncture and herbal remedies to treat illness – Develop anesthesia Advanced astronomers – Developed accurate clocks Wrote science texts – Chemistry, botany, and Zoology
Closure How is the construction of the Great Wall of China an example of Chinese ethnocentrism? Why did the Silk Road increase cultural diffusion?