3 PlanningOrganizingLeadingControllingManagementMost managers carry out four different functions of management.Some managers may primarily focus on one or two of these functions.A challenge for many managers, especially those in small businesses, is dealing with multiple objectives at different functional levels.Balancing and managing interdependent functionsAllocating scarce resources to multiple areas of the business
4 Planning Planning = act or process of creating goals and objectives – Where are we going?Strategies to meet goals and objectives (long- and short-term) – How will we get there?Requires manager to identifyResources needed (e.g. time, money, manpower, etc.)Standards that must be met (e.g. goals, quality requirements)
5 OrganizingOrganizing = obtaining and coordinating resources so that a business’s goals and objectives can be metResources includePeople (Staffing): hire, train, schedule, and manage employeesWork Processes: design workflow and coordinate schedulesEquipment: obtain and schedule necessary machinery and other tools
6 Organizing: Levels of Management Organizing also involves determining how different individuals in the firm relate to one another.Organizational chart = graphic showing how a firm is structured and who is in charge of whom
7 Organizing: Levels of Management Top-Level ManagerMiddle ManagerOperational ManagerGoal-setting and planning for business; determine vision and strategies; leading and controllingCarries out decisions of top management; responsible for departments or divisions; organizing, leading, and controlling, with some planningResponsible for daily operations; some planning and organizing, but mostly leading and controlling
8 Fast Break: Group Discussion Some people believe that the planning function is the most important one for a manager. Do you agree? Why or why not?How do you use the organizing function when you are assigned a group project? Do students tend to do this together or select a group member to act as a manager? Is that a good strategy? Why or why not?Many businesses make the organizational chart available for review by employees. How do you think having easy access to the organizational chart makes work flow more smoothly?
9 LeadingLeading = influencing, guiding, and directing people under one’s management to carry out their assigned tasksMeans providing direction and visionAlso includesSetting standards (e.g. deadlines, sales quotas)Delegating work = assigning tasks to subordinatesEnforcing policiesOverseeing time managementProviding feedback on employees’ work (e.g. approval, constructive criticism, performance evaluations)Resolving conflictsGood managers lead by example.
10 ControllingControlling = keeping the company on track and making sure goals are metInvolvesSetting standards for workEvaluating performanceSolving problems that interfere with performanceTracking and monitoring progressTaking corrective action when necessary
11 Controlling: Some Areas to Monitor BudgetsSchedules and DeadlinesQualityEmployee PerformanceCustomer SatisfactionSales and Other Indicators
12 Fast Break: Teacher as Manager An important aspect of teaching is classroom management.Brainstorm a list of the things your teachers have to do to keep class running smoothly.Then, create a chart like this one and sort the tasks on your list into the different functions of managers.Functions of ManagersPlanningOrganizingLeadingControlling