Presentation on theme: "According to Piaget Children are little scientists who develop cognitively by acquiring schemas about the world through discovery learning To what extent."— Presentation transcript:
1 What does Piaget tell us about how children’s cognitive abilities develop?
2 According to PiagetChildren are little scientists who develop cognitively by acquiring schemas about the world through discovery learningTo what extent do you agree with this view?
3 Are there things a child needs to learn about the world that cannot simply be discovered?
4 Today you will…Outline the main points of Vygotsky’s theory of Cognitive DevelopmentDefine and explain the concepts of scaffolding and the zone of proximal development (ZPD)Consider the role of socialisation on cognitive development
5 Lev VygotskyRussian psychologist, contemporary of Piaget but his work not published in English until after his death in 1934Believed that Piaget ignored the role of culture on cognitive development
6 Vygotsky’s TheoryCognitive development involves the active internalisation of problem-solving processes as a result of mutual interaction between children and othersChildren learn how to think through their interactions with othersWhere Piaget saw the child as a scientist, Vygotsky saw the child as an apprentice
7 Zone of Proximal Development In one of your subjects/hobbies/interests, think of…One thing you can do well on your ownOne thing you can do if someone helps youOne thing you can’t do at all
8 Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD) The gap between what a child can do on their own and what a child can do with supportThe child will not be able to take the next step in their development unless they are supported in the ZPDThis support is known as scaffolding and is seen as the main role of adults/teachers
9 Zone of Proximal Development Vygotsky’s view:“…what a child can do with assistance today she will be able to do by herself tomorrow.” (Vygotsky, 1978)Contrast with Piaget:“Every time we teach a child something, we keep him from inventing it himself. On the other hand, that which we allow him to discover for himself will remain with him visible for the rest of his life.” (Piaget, in Piers, 1972)
10 In groups of three…Assign yourselves the roles of child, parent and psychologistThe child will be given a toy to play with for three minutesParents should get involved with their child’s play in any way they feel appropriatePsychologists need to observe interactions and record details of how the parent supports the child’s play
11 Is there a ‘best’ way for parents to provide support to their children when they are learning something new?
12 Levels of Parental Support (Wood & Middleton, 1975) 4 yr olds give wooden blocks to fit togetherBuilding task too difficult for child to complete aloneInteractions between children and parents observed in different levels of support:Parent demonstratesParent preparesParent indicatesParent gives specific instructionsParent gives verbal prompt
13 Support for Vygotsky?Do Wood & Middleton’s results support the idea that children learn cognitive concepts through the support of more advanced othersWere children in this study actually acquiring a new concept?
14 Hatano & Inigaki (1992) Suggested a distinction between: routine knowledgelearning of a context-specific skillconceptual knowledgeacquisition of general cognitive principles which are transferable to a range of different contexts
15 According to Vygotsky, what factors do you think might influence a child’s development and understanding of false beliefs?Would family structure be important?
16 X-cultural support?Children in Crete & Cyprus (Lewis et al, 1996), Japan & England (Ruffman et al, 1998) tested on the false belief taskIf a child knows something to be true, do they understand that someone else might hold a false belief which will influence their behaviour?Children with larger families, and specifically older siblings are likely to develop this understanding more quickly (Lewis et al, 1996; Ruffman et al, 1998)
17 Language & thinkingVygotsky believed that thinking is structured by languageChildren acquire language through social interaction that they then use to structure and organise their own thinking and problem solvingSelf talk eventually becomes (mostly) silent/internal
18 HomeworkLooking at the top tips for teachers leaflet produced over the summer:How well does it offer advice to teachers? Is it informative but accessible?How does the commentary explain the advice? Is there a clear understanding and application of Piaget’s theory?Are there any problems with the advice? What would Vygotsky think? Write a critique from his point of view.