3 The Widget Effect, 2009Districts using binary ratings for teacher evaluation:More than 99% of teacher receive satisfactory ratings in districts using binary ratings (satisfactory/unsatisfactory)Districts using binary ratings for teacher evaluation:94% of teachers receive one of the top two ratingsLess than 1 percent are rated unsatisfactoryInflation of ratings is pervasive in many district evaluation systemsQuestion: How can we expect teachers to improve when their instructional performance is neither differentiated nor accurately rated?Reports like these that show teachers do not have accurate evaluations that pinpoint where they need to improve and then measure and support improvement have precipitated the teacher evaluation reform movement.What percentage of your teachers were rated in the top two ratings vs. unsatisfactory? This may be less of a symptom of the framework than of inflation among the raters.
4 QuestionsWhen most all teachers are rated the same, do we honor great teachers?How can we expect teachers to improve when their instructional performance is not differentiated nor accurately rated?
5 The Importance of Effective Teaching and Leadership Research tells us that the role of the teacher is the single greatest factor on student learning.(Sanders, et al)Research also tells that one of the greatest factors central office can contribute is to maintain a singular focus on improving instruction.(Marzano and Waters, 2009)
6 Why do we need to change?What is the purpose of teacher evaluation? To rate teachers? Or to raise student achievement?
7 Teacher Evaluation Reform Student Achievement/Growth and Instructional PracticeTeacher evaluation reform sweeping the state legislatures is requiring student growth/achievement as a component of the overall teacher evaluation.No longer is it good enough to simply rate teachers, the ratings must be accurate to effectiveness (high rating on instruction will not correlate to a low student growth score)
8 Purposes of Teacher Evaluation Formative/GrowthSummative/EvaluationFormative evaluation consists of evaluation practices meant to shape, form, or improve teachers' performances. The basis of this is accurate, timely and specific feedback on use of instructional strategies.In contrast, summative evaluation, as the term implies, has as its aim the development and use of data to inform summative judgments of teachers’ performance.Both of these processes are based on a sources of evidence in a Common Language of Instruction.
9 Here’s What We KnowStudent achievement will not improve unless teaching improvesTeachers working alone without feedback will find it difficult to be able to improve no matter how much professional development they receiveThe challenge of Teacher Evaluation is to create a system of continuous improvement of instruction, professional development, and feedbackSupervision needs to be frequent and focused on the improvement of instruction within a common language of InstructionFeedback must be timely, specific, and meaningful. Therefore, the evaluation model must emphasize instruction and provide clear guidance not just on performance, but how to improve.
10 Why Do Teacher Evaluation Differently What is the goal?
11 Marzano Causal Teacher Evaluation Model The Goal: An expectation that all teachers can increase their expertise from year to year which produces gains in student achievement from year to year with a powerful cumulative effect.
12 Marzano Causal Teacher Evaluation Model 4 Domains describing levels of teaching performance60 ElementsValidation studiesCorrelationalCorrectly identifies teachers’ performance levelsEffect size studies for strategies within the framework
13 Framework 4 Domains (60 elements) Emphasis on instruction MARZANO CAUSAL MODEL4 Domains (60 elements)Emphasis on instruction41 elements in Classroom Strategies and Behaviors (68%)Research indications of higher levels of observer accuracy due to specificityGreater clarity for a common language of instructionTeachers are empoweredTransparent processesMore formative feedbackContinuous growthWhy is an emphasis on instruction important in teacher evaluation? Causal link to raising student achievement. In the new era of teacher evaluation, it is no longer OK just to rate teachers’ performance, the model must help teachers get better in order to raise student achievement.Traditional Evaluation Model the responsibility is disproportionately on the principal with a more passive role of the teacher.Principal in traditional is compliance oriented usually one summative observation and little formative feedbackPrincipal in Causal empowers teachers setting up the conditions for formative feedback, deliberate practice, monitoring and supporting incremental improvements in expertise every year, monitors key non-negotiables such as self-assessment for reflection, professional growth plan with monitoring, celebrates progress toward expertise for every teacher, has teachers share what is working and why, sets up opportunities for deliberate practice, sharing, mentoring, etc.Teacher in Causal - practice moves from private to more transparent, weaknesses are seen as opportunities for growth, teacher is empowered as a professional for their own growth and development, teacher engagement and ownership is the hallmark of causal system, moves from ambiguous to clarity of the common language of instruction with clear goals for improvement, etc.Students – in causal student learning increases is the true metric, student evidences from responses and behaviors in the classroom to interview answers indicate how well the teaching/learning process is workingData – recognizing in a causal model that student data is a lagging indicator and teacher behavior is a leading indicator, and deliberate practice comes even before teacher behavior changes.
14 Marzano Causal Model: Research Based Strategies Developmental continuum for teachers to implement research-based strategiesSpecific guidance for teachers to improve instructionEvidences of sufficient implementation to raise student learningGuidance on the appropriate instructional context (when) to use each strategy to have the highest probability to raise student learningMarzano’s Framework is more detailed, specific, and helps the teachers to understand what to do in order to improvement their teaching sufficiently to show gains in student achievement.
15 Marzano – Element Evidences The teacher provides a clearly stated learning goal accompanied by scale or rubric that describes levels of performance relative to the learning goal.TEACHER EVIDENCETeacher has a learning goal posted so that all students can see itThe learning goal is a clear statement of knowledge or information as opposed to an activity or assignmentTeacher makes reference to the learning goal throughout the lessonTeacher has a scale or rubric that relates to the learning goal posted so that all students can see itTeacher makes reference to the scale or rubric throughout the lesson STUDENT EVIDENCEWhen asked, students can explain the learning goal for the lessonWhen asked, students can explain how their current activities relate to the learning goalWhen asked, students can explain the meaning of the levels of performance articulated in the scale or rubric
16 Developmental Continuum Marzano – Element Scale
17 Marzano Causal Model: Research Based Strategies Effective teacher = student achievement (use of research-based strategies to achieve student learning results)Effective Principal = Effective TeachersStudent achievement learning results are lagging indicators.Teacher and student behavior is a leading indicator (effective use of research-based instructional strategies)
18 Marzano Model Causal Links What is the leading indicator of student achievement? Teachers’ classroom behaviors.What is the leading indicator of teachers’ classroom behaviors? Deliberate practice. What is deliberate practice? Where teachers focus on specific strategies (1-3) each year within a growth plan and engage in focused practice with focused feedback while monitoring their implementation progress through evidences identified in research.Deliberate Practice:Focus on “thin slices”Self-assess and identify areas of weaknessSelect focus area for improvementDetermine current level of performance in focus areaSet time-bound goal for increasing performanceSeek mentors and feedback in area in which they are workingConstantly monitor progress
19 Deliberate PracticeFeedback that is focused on specific classroom strategies and behaviors during a set time intervalPractice that is focused on a limited number of strategies where corrections, modifications, and adaptations are made to improve student learningEvery teacher improves every year on a focused set of strategiesTeacher expertise develops over timeTeachers raise student achievement through the skillful use of research-based strategiesTeachers develop expertise through engaging in deliberate practice with focused practice and focused feedbackMarzano’s model is granular enough with “thin slices” of instruction to support deliberate practice
20 Traditional vs. Causal Roles PrincipalTeacherStudentDataTraditional System of EvaluationCausal Model of EvaluationShared responsibility with teacherEmpowers teachers to contribute to their own evaluationTraditional Evaluation Model the responsibility is disproportionately on the principal with a more passive role of the teacher.Principal in traditional is compliance oriented usually one summative observation and little formative feedbackPrincipal in Causal empowers teachers setting up the conditions for formative feedback, deliberate practice, monitoring and supporting incremental improvements in expertise every year, monitors key non-negotiables such as self-assessment for reflection, professional growth plan with monitoring, celebrates progress toward expertise for every teacher, has teachers share what is working and why, sets up opportunities for deliberate practice, sharing, mentoring, etc.Teacher in Causal - practice moves from private to more transparent, weaknesses are seen as opportunities for growth, teacher is empowered as a professional for their own growth and development, teacher engagement and ownership is the hallmark of causal system, moves from ambiguous to clarity of the common language of instruction with clear goals for improvement, etc.Students – in causal student learning increases is the true metric, student evidences from responses and behaviors in the classroom to interview answers indicate how well the teaching/learning process is workingData – recognizing in a causal model that student data is a lagging indicator and teacher behavior is a leading indicator, and deliberate practice comes even before teacher behavior changes.
21 Marzano Causal Teacher Evaluation Model The primary emphasis of supervision is to raise student achievement through the effective implementation of research-based instructional strategies
22 Marzano Causal Teacher Evaluation Model When these strategies are used, here is the typical effect on raising student achievement (percentile gain corrected):Note Taking17%Practice14%Setting Goals/Objectives25%Student Discussion/ChunkingSummarizing19%Tracking Student Progress and Using Scoring Scales34%Building Vocabulary20%Effort and Recognition14%Graphic Organizers13%Homework15%Identifying Similarities and DifferencesInteractive GamesNonlinguistic Representations17%Examples of impacts on raising student learning…teachers focus on a small number every year with focused feedback and focused practice.Validation studies include both correlational (framework accurately identifies teachers’ level of performance) and on the elements within the framework.
23 Research-Based Strategies Research-based strategies have a high probability of raising student achievement if they are used:In the part (segment) or type of lesson that is appropriate for the strategyAt the appropriate level of implementationOnly Dr. Marzano’s evaluation model includes this in the model.Identifies the instructional context for use of specific strategiesIdentifies the level of implementation for each strategy sufficient to raise student achievementRemember the purpose of the evaluation model is to help teachers improve their classroom instruction with specific guidance in order to raise student achievement.
24 Are Your Teachers…Using these strategies at a sufficient level of implementation to raise student achievement?Using the appropriate strategies for different types of lessons or parts of a lesson?
25 Common Language/ Model of Instruction Why is a Common Language/Model of Instruction Critical for Developing Effective Teachers?Definition of Effective Teaching so every leader and every teacher knows what effective teaching looks and sounds likeAccuracy and inter-rater reliability for supervisors, teacher leaders, coaches, and teachersAbility to provide professional development rigorously aligned to the Model of Instruction and measure progress in improving teacher practiceConsistency for data collection to measure progress across classrooms, schools and districts
26 Common Language/ Model of Instruction Must: Accurately reflect the complexity and sophistication of the teaching/learning processIndentify the key strategies revealed by research for effective teaching within a framework of instructionIdentify which research-based strategies are appropriate for different types of lessons or lesson segmentsInclude rubrics with a clearly defined continuums of implementation and evidences sufficient to impact student learningBe flexible to allow districts to adapt and adopt the model to reflect local needs and priorities yet retain the Common Language
27 Common Language of Instruction Aligns Misaligned Systems No Common Language or Model of InstructionCommon Language or Model of Instruction
28 Marzano Causal Teacher Evaluation Model STUDENT ACHIEVEMENTDomain 1: Classroom Strategies and Behaviors (41 Elements)Routine Segments (5 Elements)Content Segments (18 Elements)On the Spot Segments (18 Elements)Domain 4: Collegiality and Professionalism (6 Elements)Promoting a Positive Environment(2 Elements)Promoting Exchange of Ideas (2 Elements)Promoting District and School Development (2 Elements)Domain 4: Collegiality and Professionalism (6 Elements)Promoting a Positive Environment(2 Elements)Promoting Exchange of Ideas (2 Elements)Promoting District and School Development (2 Elements)Domain 2: Planning and Preparing (8 Elements)Lesson and Units (3 Elements)Use of Materials and Technology (2 Elements)Special Needs of Students (3 Elements)Facilitator Notes: A framework or common language is key to improving instruction . The next three graphics provides a graphic representation of the model and can be used as part of your submission to describe your model If you are not using this model, you will want to consider a graphic representation or narrative that describes the model you are intending to use. For those individuals who will use Danielson, we have also included a graphic for your use. If you are using a hybrid of models that are research based you may want to consider composing a graphic that will communicate your framework.Refresher from Academy (previously a pyramid)Represents research that shows where the most impact occurs with student achievement = Domain 1Domain 3: Reflecting on Teaching (5 Elements)Evaluating Personal Performance (3 Elements)Professional Growth Plan (2 Elements)
29 Marzano Teacher Evaluation FROM:TO:Compliance focused, annual reviews that are inflated and lack specific guidance for instructional improvementMisaligned system without specificity in the common language of instructionAmbiguity and subjectivity due to the lack of specificityLacks connections to student achievement gainsFormative and summative process that is timely, specific, and honors growth over timeCoherent research-based common language of instruction with clear and objective measures and teacher and student evidencesClarity and consistency, from the newest teacher to the most veteran practitioners and supports accuracy for observersCausal links to raising student achievement
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