2 Essential QuestionWhat are Rhetorical Appeals and how can I identify and use them in informational text and in my writing?
3 The Rhetorical Triangle A way of thinking about what's involved in any communication/persuasion scenario.The 3 elements of The Rhetorical Triangle are:a speaker or writer (who performs the rhetoric),an audience (the people addressed), anda purpose (the message communicated with the audience)
4 The Rhetorical Triangle Writer/SpeakerAudiencePurpose/Message
5 Aristotle’s Rhetoric Appeals Rhetoric (n) - the art of speaking or writing to effectively persuade.According to Aristotle, rhetoric is "the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion." He described three main forms of rhetoric appeals: Ethos, Logos, and Pathos
6 Appeals to the Audience LogosEthosPathosIdentifiable in almostall arguments
7 Logos Appeals to logic, through statistics, data, facts and examples Reasoning that the author usesLogical evidence is found
8 Types of Logos Appeals Theories/scientific facts Indicated meanings or reasons (because…)Literal or historical analogiesDefinitionsFactual data and statisticsQuotationsCitations from experts and authoritiesInformed opinionsExamples (from real life)Personal anecdotes
9 Effect on Audience Cognitive or rational response Readers feel: “that makes sense”, “seems logical”, or “that doesn’t prove anything”
10 Logos Example“Some 35 million Americans regularly buy products that claim to be earth-friendly, while an additional 7 million currently have solar panels installed on their home.”“It may be better to keep your old tube TV instead of buying the newest LCD screen, because the older sets use less power than a plasma TV.”
11 Logos: exampleHere we see a chart showing a correlation between the fall of pirates and rise of natural disasters. Are you convinced by these statistics?
12 EthosAppeals to ethics by making the audience believe that the author is credible and trustworthy.+ Character traitsLook at how an author builds credibility and trustworthiness
13 Ways to Develop Ethos Author’s profession/background Author’s publicationAppear sincere, fair-minded, knowledgeableConceding to opposition when appropriateMorally/ethically likeableAppropriate language for audienceAppropriate vocabularyCorrect grammarProfessional format
14 Effect on AudienceReader sees author as reliable, trustworthy, competent, and credibleReader might respect the author or his views
15 Ethos ExampleIf you are a successful professional basketball player—like Michael Jordan, for example--talking about basketball to other pro athletes, then your ethos is strong with that particular audience even before you open your mouth or take pen to paper. Your audience assumes you are knowledgeable about your subject because of your experience. Now, if you are instead a baseball player talking about basketball, then your extrinsic ethos is not as strong because you haven't been played pro basketball, but you're still a professional athlete and know something about that kind of life.
16 Ethos ExampleAn officer of the law has inartistic ethos because of the station they hold (we trust them because of their position).However, that same officer can lose our trust by their actions, as in the case of Rodney King.
17 Pathos Appeals to emotion through connotative language and imagery. Words or passages an author uses to activate emotions
18 Types of Pathos Appeals Emotionally loaded languageVivid descriptionsEmotional examplesAnecdotes, testimonies, narratives about emotional experiences/eventsFigurative languageEmotional tone (humor, sarcasm, disappointment, excitement
19 Effect on Audience Evokes an emotional response Persuasion by emotion (usually fear, sympathy, empathy, anger)
20 Pathos ExampleDuring the final stretch of David Ritter’s hourlong trip to middle school, he pulls a cell phone from his jeans and calls his mother in Washington Heights to say he is out of the subway and moments from Salk Middle School. “It’s the one thing I can cross off my list of things to worry about,” his mother Elizabeth Ritter said. “It’s a required part of our everyday life.”
21 Pathos Example"I am not unmindful that some of you have come here out of great trials and tribulations. Some of you have come fresh from narrow jail cells. And some of you have come from areas where your quest -- quest for freedom left you battered by the storms of persecution and staggered by the winds of police brutality. You have been the veterans of creative suffering. Continue to work with the faith that unearned suffering is redemptive. Go back to Mississippi, go back to Alabama, go back to South Carolina, go back to Georgia, go back to Louisiana, go back to the slums and ghettos of our northern cities, knowing that somehow this situation can and will be changed."I Have a Dream by Martin Luther King Jr. August 28th, 1963.
22 The best arguments contain more than one type of appeal! It's important to recognize that ethos, pathos, and logos appeals are rarely found independently of each other, and that complex and effective persuasion usually involves all of them in some combination.
23 Rhetorical Devices Used by Speakers and Writers Rhetorical devices are the nuts and bolts of speech and writing; the parts that make a communication work. Separately, each part of is meaningless, but once put together they create a powerful effect on the listener/reader.ParallelismRepetitionAllusionVaried Sentence Length
24 ParallelismParallelism is the use of components in a sentence that are grammatically the same; or similar in their construction, sound, meaning or meter.Writing structures that are grammatically parallel helps the reader understand the points better because they flow more smoothly.If there is anyone out there who still doubts, who still wonders, who still questions
25 RepetitionRepetition is a literary device that repeats the same words or phrases a few times to make an idea clearerRepetition can be effective in creating a sense of structure and power. In both speech and literature, repeating small phrases can ingrain an idea in the minds of the audience.Yes, we can, to opportunity and prosperity. Yes, we can heal this nation. Yes, we can repair this world. Yes, we can.
26 AllusionAn allusion is a brief and indirect reference to a person, place, thing or idea of historical, cultural, literary, or political significanceBy using allusion, you not only associate yourself with the ideas of the original text but also create a bond with the audience by evoking share knowledgeThe words government of the people, by the people, and for the people are lifted from the “Gettysburg Address”
27 Varied Sentence Length Varying the sentence length is always a good way to strengthen any writing style, be it speech writing or essays.“To the best campaign team ever assembles in the history of politics: you made this happen, and I am forever grateful for what you’ve sacrificed to get it done. But above all, I will never forget who this victory truly belongs to. It belongs to you. It belongs to you.”
28 A More Complete Rhetorical Triangle Writer/SpeakerAppeal to Ethos (Credibility of Writer)AudienceAppeal to Pathos(Emotions, Beliefs,and Values)Purpose/MessageAppeal to Logos(Facts, Research, Data)