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CMSC 414 Computer (and Network) Security Lecture 12 Jonathan Katz.

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1 CMSC 414 Computer (and Network) Security Lecture 12 Jonathan Katz

2 Midterm?  Will be held Oct 21, in class  Will cover everything up to and including the preceding lecture (Oct 16)  Includes all reading posted on the class syllabus!

3 Homework review?  Questions on HWs 1 or 2??

4 Integrity policies (Chapter 6)

5 Some requirements/assumptions  Users will not write their own programs –Will use existing programs and databases  Programs will be written/tested on a nonproduction system  Special process must be followed to install new program on production system

6 Requirements, continued…  The special installation process is controlled and audited  Auditors must have access to both system state and system logs

7 Some corollaries…  “Separation of duty” –Basically, have multiple people check any critical functions (e.g., software installation)  “Separation of function” –Develop new programs on a separate system  Auditing –Recovery/accountability

8 Biba integrity model  Ordered integrity levels –The higher the level, the more confidence More confidence that a program will act correctly More confidence that a subject will act appropriately More confidence that data is trustworthy –Note that integrity levels may be independent of security labels Confidentiality vs. trustworthiness Information flow vs. information modification

9 Information transfer  An information transfer path is a sequence of objects o 1, …, o n and subjects s 1, …, s n-1, such that, for all i, s i can read o i and write to o i+1  Information can be transferred from o 1 to o n via a sequence of read-write operations

10 “Low-water-mark” policy  s can write to o if and only if the integrity level of s is higher than that of o –The information obtained from a subject cannot be more trustworthy than the subject itself  If s reads o, then the integrity level of s is changed to min(i(o), i(s)) –The subject may be relying on data less trustworthy than itself

11 Continued…  s 1 can execute s 2 iff the integrity level of s 1 is higher than the integrity level of s 2 –Note that, e.g., s 1 provides inputs to s 2 so s 2 cannot be more trustworthy than s 1

12 Security theorem  If there is an information transfer path from o 1 to o n, then i(o n )  i(o 1 ) –Informally: information transfer does not increase the trustworthiness of the data

13 Drawbacks of this approach  The integrity level of a subject is non- increasing –A subject will soon be unable to access objects at high integrity levels  Does not help if integrity levels of objects are lowered instead –Downgrades the integrity level of trustworthy information

14 Ring policy  Only deals with direct modification –Any subject may read any object –s can write to o iff i(o)  i(s) –s 1 can execute s 2 iff i(s 2 )  i(s 1 )  The difference is that integrity levels of subjects do not change…  Security theorem holds here as well

15 Strict integrity policy  “Biba’s model” –s can read o iff i(s)  i(o) –s can write o iff i(o)  i(s) –s 1 can execute s 2 iff i(s 2 )  i(s 1 )  Note that read/write are both allowed only if i(s) = i(o)  Security theorem holds here as well

16 Lipner’s basic model  Based loosely on Bell-LaPadula –Two security levels Audit manager (AM) System low (SL) –Five categories Development (D) - production programs under development Production code (PC) - processes/programs Production data (PD) System development (SD) - system programs under development Software tools (T) - programs unrelated to protected data

17 Lipner’s model, continued  Assign users to levels/categories; e.g.: –Regular users: (SL, {PC, PD}) –Developers: (SL, {D, T}) –System auditors (AM, {D, PC, PD, SD, T}) –Etc.

18 Lipner’s model, continued  Objects assigned levels/categories based on who should access them; e.g.: –Ordinary users should be able to read production code, so this is labeled (SL, {PC}) –Ordinary users should be able to write production data, so this is labeled (SL, {PC, PD}) –Follows Bell-LaPadula methodology…

19 Properties  This satisfies the initial requirements: –Users cannot execute category T, so they cannot write their own programs –Developers do not have read/write access to PD, so cannot access production data If they need production data, the data must first be downgraded to D (this requires sys admins) –Etc.

20 Lipner’s full model  Augment security classifications with integrity classifications  Now, a subject’s access rights to an object depend on both its security classification and its integrity classification –E.g., subject can read an object only if subject’s security class is higher and subject’s integrity class is lower

21 Clark-Wilson model (highlights)  Transactions are the basic operation –Not subjects/objects  The system should always remain in a “consistent state” –A well-formed transaction leaves the system in a consistent state  Must also verify the integrity of the transactions themselves

22 Access control mechanisms (Chapter 15)

23 The problem  Drawbacks of access control matrices… –In practice, number of subjects/objects is large –Most entries blank/default –Matrix is modified every time subjects/objects are created/deleted

24 Access control lists (ACLs)  Instead of storing central matrix, store each column with the object it represents –Stored as pairs (s, r)  Subjects not in list have no rights –Can use wildcards to give default rights

25 Example: Unix  Unix divides users into three classes: –Owner of the file –Group owner of the file –All other users  Note that this leaves little flexibility…  Some systems have been extended to allow for more flexibility –Abbrev. ACLs overridden by explicit ACLs

26 Modifying ACLs  Only processes which “own” the object can modify the ACL of the object –Sometimes, there is a special “grant” right (possibly per right)

27 Privileged user?  How do ACLs apply to privileged user? –E.g., in Solaris both abbreviations of ACLs and “full” ACLs are used Abbreviated ACLs ignored for root, but full ACLs apply even to root

28 Groups/wildcards?  Groups and wildcards reduce the size and complexity of ACLs –E.g., user : group : r * : group : r user : * : r

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