2 What is a Solution?Well mixed mixture that contains a solvent and at least 1 solute.A solution has the same properties throughout.Cannot see individual particles.
3 Parts of a SolutionSolute- substance that is present in smaller amount and is dissolved by the solvent.Solvent- substance that is present in a larger amount and dissolves the solute.
4 Why is water the universal solvent? Water the most common solventIt dissolves so many substances that it is call the universal solvent.Examples:sugar and water is the starting point for most flavored drinksWater is the solvent in blood, sweat, tears, and saliva
5 Solutions without water A solution can be made with any combination of gases, liquids and solids.Examples:Air (Oxygen and other gases in nitrogenDental filling (silver in mercuryBrass (zinc and copper)Stainless steel (chromium, nickel, and carbon in iron)Gasoline
6 What is a Colloid?A mixture containing small undissolved particles that do not settle outA colloid contains larger particles than a solution ( still not large enough to see) but are able to scatter light.Examples:MilkFogShaving creamWhipped cream
7 What is suspension?A mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtrationSuspensions contain visible particles that are larger than the particles in a colloid or solutionExamples:Snow globesSand in waterdust
9 Solutions and Conductivity Ionic compounds dissolved in water conduct electricitySalt waterMolecular compounds dissolved in water do NOT conduct electricitySugar water
10 How does a solute effect the solvent? Solutes lower the freezing point and raise the boiling point of a solvent.
11 How is concentration measured? Compare the amount of solute to the amount of solventDilute Solution- only a little solute dissolvedConcentrated Solution- a lot of solute dissolved
12 What is solubility?Measure of how much solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperatureSaturated solution= no more solute can be dissolvedUnsaturated solution= more solute can still be dissolvedSupersaturated solution= more dissolved solute than is predicted by its solubility at the given temperature
13 Factors Affecting Solubility Pressure affects the solubility of gasesType of solvent;- “like dissolves like”, oil and water not mixingTemperatureSolids become less soluble as the temperature of the solvent decreasesGasses become less soluble as the temperature increases