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Understanding Solutions

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Presentation on theme: "Understanding Solutions"— Presentation transcript:

1 Understanding Solutions

2 What is a Solution? Well mixed mixture that contains a solvent and at least 1 solute. A solution has the same properties throughout. Cannot see individual particles.

3 Parts of a Solution Solute- substance that is present in smaller amount and is dissolved by the solvent. Solvent- substance that is present in a larger amount and dissolves the solute.

4 Why is water the universal solvent?
Water the most common solvent It dissolves so many substances that it is call the universal solvent. Examples: sugar and water is the starting point for most flavored drinks Water is the solvent in blood, sweat, tears, and saliva

5 Solutions without water
A solution can be made with any combination of gases, liquids and solids. Examples: Air (Oxygen and other gases in nitrogen Dental filling (silver in mercury Brass (zinc and copper) Stainless steel (chromium, nickel, and carbon in iron) Gasoline

6 What is a Colloid? A mixture containing small undissolved particles that do not settle out A colloid contains larger particles than a solution ( still not large enough to see) but are able to scatter light. Examples: Milk Fog Shaving cream Whipped cream

7 What is suspension? A mixture in which particles can be seen and easily separated by settling or filtration Suspensions contain visible particles that are larger than the particles in a colloid or solution Examples: Snow globes Sand in water dust

8 Solutions, Colloids & Suspensions

9 Solutions and Conductivity
Ionic compounds dissolved in water conduct electricity Salt water Molecular compounds dissolved in water do NOT conduct electricity Sugar water

10 How does a solute effect the solvent?
Solutes lower the freezing point and raise the boiling point of a solvent.

11 How is concentration measured?
Compare the amount of solute to the amount of solvent Dilute Solution- only a little solute dissolved Concentrated Solution- a lot of solute dissolved

12 What is solubility? Measure of how much solute can dissolve in a solvent at a given temperature Saturated solution= no more solute can be dissolved Unsaturated solution= more solute can still be dissolved Supersaturated solution= more dissolved solute than is predicted by its solubility at the given temperature

13 Factors Affecting Solubility
Pressure affects the solubility of gases Type of solvent; - “like dissolves like”, oil and water not mixing Temperature Solids become less soluble as the temperature of the solvent decreases Gasses become less soluble as the temperature increases

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