2 Explain which factors can affect solubility of solids, liquids and gases. Include: pressure and temperatureDifferentiate among saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions.Use a graph of solubility data to solve problems.Additional KEY Terms
3 Factors that affect Solubility Nature of the Solvent and Solute**The general dissolving rule is like dissolves like.**Polar SolventNon-polar SolventPolar SoluteIonic SoluteNon-Polar Solute
4 2. Surface area (crushing) Dissolves faster with increased surface areaAmount dissolved depends on level of attractionAgitate (stir) the mixtureAdded energy of stirring dissolves it fasterAdded energy can help more particles dissolve
6 Temperature increases the solubility of solids in a solvent. (endothermic processes)Adding heat supplies more energy to separate the solute and solvent particles.HO-+HO-+HO-+HO-+HO-+HO-+HOC+-HOC+-HOC+-HOC+-HOC+-
7 BUT…Increasing temperature decreases solubility of gases in a solvent.FLATAs kinetic energy of dissolved gas particles increases, particles overcome attractive forces and escape.
8 weak attraction 5. Pressure (only affects gases) Pressure increases thesolubility of gas in a solvent.Forces gas particles into contact with the liquidweak attraction
9 Anything that adds energy to the dissolved gas particles, gives them energy to escape attraction
11 MAX amount dissolved at that temperature Saturated solutionMAX amount dissolved at that temperatureif you add more solute, it will not dissolveUnsaturatedSolvent is able to dissolve more at that tempSupersaturatedSolvent is holding more solute than normally can at that temperatureA supersaturated solution is very unstable.
13 Solubilityamount of solute needed to make a saturated solution (under given conditions)Units - grams of solute per 100 grams of solvent.- grams of solute per 100 mL of solvent.Dependent on temperature.Proportional to volume of solventSolubility of a solute is determined experimentally and is shown with a “solubility curve”
15 30 g250 mL500 mL30 g = g250 mL60(500 mL)(500 mL)500 mLYou can solve this problem by using ratios.
16 If a maximum of 25. 0 g of solute can dissolve in 40 If a maximum of 25.0 g of solute can dissolve in 40.0 g of solvent, what is the solubility in 100 g of solvent at the same temperature?You can solve this problem by using ratios.grams of solute1 = grams of solute2grams of solvent1 grams of solvent225.0 g1 = g240.0 g162.5(100 g2)(100 g2)100 g2
17 Density of water is 1 g/1 mL So # mL = # grams If 30.1 g of a solute dissolves in mL of water at a certain temperature, what is the solubility of the substance in g/100g water?Density of water is 1 g/1 mL So # mL = # gramsgrams of solute1 = grams of solute2grams of solvent1 grams of solvent230.1 g1 = g2350.0 g18.60(100 g2)(100 g2)100 g2
18 What volume of water is required to dissolve 240 g of KNO3 at 60°C? grams of solute1 = grams of solute2mL of solvent mL of solvent2212 mL2=100 mL1? mL2=240 g2? mL2100 mL1113 g1
19 75 mL of a saturated solution of KNO3 at 70°C is cooled to 40°C 75 mL of a saturated solution of KNO3 at 70°C is cooled to 40°C. How much solid precipitates from the solution?=75.0 mL2100 mL1140 g1105 g2? g2=75.0 mL2100 mL165 g149.6 g2? g2105 g – 49.5 g = 55.5 g
20 CAN YOU / HAVE YOU?Explain which factors can affect solubility of solids, liquids and gases. Include: pressure and temperatureDifferentiate among saturated, unsaturated, and supersaturated solutions.Use a graph of solubility data to solve problems.Additional KEY Terms