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The Skeleton.

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Presentation on theme: "The Skeleton."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Skeleton

2 Two Divisions Axial Appendicular

3 Axial Skeleton

4 The “axis” of the Body Skull Inner ear bones Hyoid Bone Rib cage
Vertebral column

5 Axial Skeleton Functions
Framework for supporting and protecting organ systems in dorsal and ventral body cavities Surface area for muscle attachment Head, neck and trunk stability and movement Respiratory movement Stabilize/position appendicular skeleton

6 Skull Protect Brain Support sense organs Vision Hearing Balance
Olfaction gustation

7 Skull 22 bones Seven additional bones in the skull 8 cranial 14 facial
6 auditory ossicles Hyoid bone

8 Hyoid Bone Suspended below the skull by ligaments
Muscle base for the larynx (voice box) Supports and positions the larynx

9 Vertebral Column Spine is 26 bones 24 vertebrae Saccrum Coccyx

10 Vertebral Column Vertebrae are in regions
Cervical (C1 – C7): C1 = atlas; C2 = axis Thoracic (T1 – T12) Articulate with ribs Lumbar (L1 – L5) Total length in average adult is 28 inches

11 Intervertebral Disc Fibrocartilage disc that lies between two adjoining vertebrae Not found in sacrum or coccyx “Shock absorbers”

12 Act as ligaments that hold the vertebrae of the spine together and as cartilaginous joints that allow for slight mobility in the spine. Allow for movement at the waist as they act as a pivot point and allow the lumbar spine to bend, rotate, and twist

13 Vertebrae Anatomy For the three types of vertebrae there are different distinguishing features The openings of the vertebrae (foramen) form the vertebral canal which enclose the spinal cord

14 Vertebrae Anatomy Vertebral foramen: opening
Vertebral arch: posterior margin of foramen Transverse process: site for muscle attachment Spinous process: Bump down your back Body: weight-bearing portion Lamina: roof of vertebral arch Pedicle: walls of vertebral arch

15 Cervical Vertebrae There are seven cervical vertebrae which are located in the neck. They are the smallest, and lightest vertebrae of the vertebral column.

16 Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy
Spinous Process Superior articular facet Lamina Foramen Pedicle Transverse Process Body

17 Thoracic Vertebrae The rib cage of the chest is attached to the thoracic spine at each level. Gives a great deal of stability and support to the upper body. Limits the back's movement at the chest level.

18 Thoracic Vertebrae Anatomy
Spinous Process Transverse Process Lamina Superior articular facet Foramen Pedicle Body

19 Lumber Vertebrae There are 5 lumbar vertebrae located in the lower back. Receive the most stress and are the weight-bearing portion of the back. Allow movements such as flexion and extension and some lateral flexion.

20 Lumbar Vertebrae Anatomy
Spinous Process Superior articular facet Lamina Foramen Pedicle Transverse Process Body

21 Sacrum and Coccyx Sacrum: five fused vertebrae
Protects reproductive and digestive organs Attaches axial to appendicular skeleton Extensive muscle attachment Coccyx: 3-5 fused vertebrae Attachment site for muscle that closes anal opening


23 Spinal Curves Curved to allow for weight distribution
2 primary curves: appear in late fetal development Thoracic Sacral 2 secondary curves: occur months after birth Cervical lumbar

24 Spinal Curves Secondary Curve Primary Curve Primary Curve

25 Chest Bones (Thorax) Thoracic Vertebrae Ribs Sternum

26 Ribs and Sternum 12 pairs of ribs 7 pairs of “true ribs”
Reach the anterior body wall and connect to the sternum by separate cartilage (costal cartilage) 8-12 are “false ribs” Do not attach directly to the sternum Costal cartilage of 8-10 fuses with 7 Last Two pairs = “floating ribs” No sternum connection


28 Sternum Manubrium: articulates with the clavicle Body Xiphoid process

29 intervertebral disc x ray

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