4 The “axis” of the Body Skull Inner ear bones Hyoid Bone Rib cage Vertebral column
5 Axial Skeleton Functions Framework for supporting and protecting organ systems in dorsal and ventral body cavitiesSurface area for muscle attachmentHead, neck and trunk stability and movementRespiratory movementStabilize/position appendicular skeleton
6 Skull Protect Brain Support sense organs Vision Hearing Balance Olfactiongustation
7 Skull 22 bones Seven additional bones in the skull 8 cranial 14 facial 6 auditory ossiclesHyoid bone
8 Hyoid Bone Suspended below the skull by ligaments Muscle base for the larynx (voice box)Supports and positions the larynx
9 Vertebral ColumnSpine is 26 bones24 vertebraeSaccrumCoccyx
10 Vertebral Column Vertebrae are in regions Cervical (C1 – C7): C1 = atlas; C2 = axisThoracic (T1 – T12)Articulate with ribsLumbar (L1 – L5)Total length in average adult is 28 inches
11 Intervertebral DiscFibrocartilage disc that lies between two adjoining vertebraeNot found in sacrum or coccyx“Shock absorbers”
12 Act as ligaments that hold the vertebrae of the spine together and as cartilaginous joints that allow for slight mobility in the spine.Allow for movement at the waist as they act as a pivot point and allow the lumbar spine to bend, rotate, and twist
13 Vertebrae AnatomyFor the three types of vertebrae there are different distinguishing featuresThe openings of the vertebrae (foramen) form the vertebral canal which enclose the spinal cord
14 Vertebrae Anatomy Vertebral foramen: opening Vertebral arch: posterior margin of foramenTransverse process: site for muscle attachmentSpinous process: Bump down your backBody: weight-bearing portionLamina: roof of vertebral archPedicle: walls of vertebral arch
15 Cervical VertebraeThere are seven cervical vertebrae which are located in the neck.They are the smallest, and lightest vertebrae of the vertebral column.
17 Thoracic VertebraeThe rib cage of the chest is attached to the thoracic spine at each level.Gives a great deal of stability and support to the upper body.Limits the back's movement at the chest level.
19 Lumber VertebraeThere are 5 lumbar vertebrae located in the lower back.Receive the most stress and are the weight-bearing portion of the back.Allow movements such as flexion and extension and some lateral flexion.
21 Sacrum and Coccyx Sacrum: five fused vertebrae Protects reproductive and digestive organsAttaches axial to appendicular skeletonExtensive muscle attachmentCoccyx: 3-5 fused vertebraeAttachment site for muscle that closes anal opening
26 Ribs and Sternum 12 pairs of ribs 7 pairs of “true ribs” Reach the anterior body wall and connect to the sternum by separate cartilage (costal cartilage)8-12 are “false ribs”Do not attach directly to the sternumCostal cartilage of 8-10 fuses with 7Last Two pairs = “floating ribs”No sternum connection