Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 People in the Global Ecosystem"— Presentation transcript:
1 Unit 4 People in the Global Ecosystem Chapter Feeding The World
2 Chapter 14.1 Human Nutrition ObjectivesList the major groups of nutritients and the amounts of energy provided by each type.
3 Macronutrients – provide the body with energy. Chapter 14.1 NutrientsTwo groups:Macronutrients – provide the body with energy.
4 Chapter 14.1 Nutrients (continued) Two groups:Micronutrients – provide the body with small amounts of chemicals needed for biochemical reactions
5 Chapter 14.1 CaloriesMacronutrients are measured in kilocalories (kcal) 1 kcal = energy to raise 1 Kg of H2O 1° Ckilocalories are commonly referred to as calories
6 Chapter 14.1 Three Types of Macronutrients CarbohydratesProteinsFats
7 Chapter 14.1 Carbohydrates A compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in approximately a 1:2:1 ratioProvides ~4 kcal/gramComplexCarbohydrates
8 Chapter 14.1 FatsFatsFats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids.A Lipid contains three long chains of fatty acids and is a main component of cell membranes.Provides ~9 kcal/gram
9 Proteins Chapter 14.1 Proteins A large compound made of amino acids that provides the body with the construction material for making blood, muscle and other tissue.Provides ~4 kcal/gram
10 Amino Acids Chapter 14.1 Amino Acids All proteins in the human body are made up of 20 different amino acids arranged in different patternsOf the 20 the human body can make 12.The remaining 8 must be obtained from food – these 8 are called the essential amino acid.
11 Chapter 14.1 Animal vs. Plant Proteins Foods from animals, including meats, eggs and dairy are high-protein foods with all the essential amino acids.Drawback they tend to be high in saturated fats.Plant Proteins are NOT complete Unless!
12 Chapter 14.1 Animal Protein as a condiments Reduce animal high-protein food to serving size of a condiment. with all the essential amino acids.Combine it with plant proteins and complex carbohydrates.CombineCombineANY 2 = A COMPLETE PROTEINCombine
13 Chapter 14.1 Saturated vs. unsaturated Fats belong to two groups.SaturatedUnsaturatedYou can tell how saturated a fat is by how firm it is a room temperature.Current research suggests to avoid trans-fatsAlso know as hydrogenated
14 Chapter 14.1 Nutritional Deficiency Average human adult requires 2,500 calories/day.People who receive < 90% of their energy needs are considered undernourished.Malnurtrition is when people receive their energy needs but lack a specific nutrient.
15 Chapter 14.2 World Food Supply ObjectivesExplain the effects of economics on the production of food.
16 Chapter 14.2 Green Revolution The Green Revolution began in the mid-1960s with the development of new strains of wheat and rice, the two main foods of the world.
17 A cash crop is a crop grown for the purpose of export sale. Chapter 13.2 Cash CropsA cash crop is a crop grown for the purpose of export sale.In many developing nations 85% of the farmland is owned by 5% of the population.In Africa, rather than growing food – grows feed crops for European livestock.
18 Chapter 14.2 Food from Water Commercial production of fish in a controlled , maintained environment is called aquaculture.Maine Salmon Aqua-culture
19 Chapter 14.3 Modern Farming Techniques ObjectivesDescribe how farming techniques have changed during the last 50 years.
20 Chapter 14.3 Historically Farming Farming techniques have historically been very labor-intensive.
21 Chapter 14.3 Changes in Farming Large pieces of equipment that use fossil fuels replaced animal and human powered tools.
22 Chapter 14.3 AgribusinessToday 2/3 s of the food produced in the U.S. comes from fewer than 50 agribusinesses.Some of the same corporations also produce 75% of the pesticides and other chemicals used by the industry. of the food produced in the U.S.
23 Chapter 14.3 MonocultureMany farms that used to grow a variety of crops shifted towards growing ONLY one or two crops.By growing one genetically identical crop the plants are more vulnerable to disease.
24 Chapter 14.4 Sustainable Agriculture ObjectivesDescribe the basic components of sustainable agriculture, and explain why they are desirable.
25 Chapter 14.4 Sustainable agriculture Also called regenerative or organic farming, sustainable agriculture is based on crop rotation, reduced soil erosion, pest management, and a minimal use of soil additives.
26 Chapter 14.4 Crop RotationCrop rotation means changing the type of crop grown on a regular cycle. (Usually 1 to 6 years).Helps prevent soil from becoming depleted in mineral nutrients, such as nitrogen.
27 Chapter 14.4 Reducing Erosion Strip Farming - a good plan is to establish a tree (or grass) belt along the edge of every second strip
28 Chapter 14.4 Pest Management (IPM) Integrated pest management - reduces the use of pesticides by incorporating natural predators of pest organisms.
29 ReferencesWiley. "Non Sequitur." Cartoon. gocomics. 15 Sept Sept <Earth Science Geology, the Universe and the Environment. Glencoe, PDF Version. 17 Sept p. 23