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Unit 4 People in the Global Ecosystem

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Presentation on theme: "Unit 4 People in the Global Ecosystem"— Presentation transcript:

1 Unit 4 People in the Global Ecosystem
Chapter Feeding The World

2 Chapter 14.1 Human Nutrition
Objectives List the major groups of nutritients and the amounts of energy provided by each type.

3 Macronutrients – provide the body with energy.
Chapter 14.1 Nutrients Two groups: Macronutrients – provide the body with energy.

4 Chapter 14.1 Nutrients (continued)
Two groups: Micronutrients – provide the body with small amounts of chemicals needed for biochemical reactions

5 Chapter 14.1 Calories Macronutrients are measured in kilocalories (kcal) 1 kcal = energy to raise 1 Kg of H2O 1° C kilocalories are commonly referred to as calories

6 Chapter 14.1 Three Types of Macronutrients
Carbohydrates Proteins Fats

7 Chapter 14.1 Carbohydrates
A compound made up of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in approximately a 1:2:1 ratio Provides ~4 kcal/gram Complex Carbohydrates

8 Chapter 14.1 Fats Fats Fats belong to a group of organic compounds called lipids. A Lipid contains three long chains of fatty acids and is a main component of cell membranes. Provides ~9 kcal/gram

9 Proteins Chapter 14.1 Proteins
A large compound made of amino acids that provides the body with the construction material for making blood, muscle and other tissue. Provides ~4 kcal/gram

10 Amino Acids Chapter 14.1 Amino Acids
All proteins in the human body are made up of 20 different amino acids arranged in different patterns Of the 20 the human body can make 12. The remaining 8 must be obtained from food – these 8 are called the essential amino acid.

11 Chapter 14.1 Animal vs. Plant Proteins
Foods from animals, including meats, eggs and dairy are high-protein foods with all the essential amino acids. Drawback  they tend to be high in saturated fats. Plant Proteins are NOT complete Unless!

12 Chapter 14.1 Animal Protein as a condiments
Reduce animal high-protein food to serving size of a condiment. with all the essential amino acids. Combine it with plant proteins and complex carbohydrates. Combine Combine ANY 2 = A COMPLETE PROTEIN Combine

13 Chapter 14.1 Saturated vs. unsaturated
Fats belong to two groups. Saturated Unsaturated You can tell how saturated a fat is by how firm it is a room temperature. Current research suggests to avoid trans-fats Also know as hydrogenated

14 Chapter 14.1 Nutritional Deficiency
Average human adult requires 2,500 calories/day. People who receive < 90% of their energy needs are considered undernourished. Malnurtrition is when people receive their energy needs but lack a specific nutrient.

15 Chapter 14.2 World Food Supply
Objectives Explain the effects of economics on the production of food.

16 Chapter 14.2 Green Revolution
The Green Revolution began in the mid-1960s with the development of new strains of wheat and rice, the two main foods of the world.

17 A cash crop is a crop grown for the purpose of export sale.
Chapter 13.2 Cash Crops A cash crop is a crop grown for the purpose of export sale. In many developing nations 85% of the farmland is owned by 5% of the population. In Africa, rather than growing food – grows feed crops for European livestock.

18 Chapter 14.2 Food from Water
Commercial production of fish in a controlled , maintained environment is called aquaculture. Maine Salmon Aqua-culture

19 Chapter 14.3 Modern Farming Techniques
Objectives Describe how farming techniques have changed during the last 50 years.

20 Chapter 14.3 Historically Farming
Farming techniques have historically been very labor-intensive.

21 Chapter 14.3 Changes in Farming
Large pieces of equipment that use fossil fuels replaced animal and human powered tools.

22 Chapter 14.3 Agribusiness Today 2/3 s of the food produced in the U.S. comes from fewer than 50 agribusinesses. Some of the same corporations also produce 75% of the pesticides and other chemicals used by the industry. of the food produced in the U.S.

23 Chapter 14.3 Monoculture Many farms that used to grow a variety of crops shifted towards growing ONLY one or two crops. By growing one genetically identical crop the plants are more vulnerable to disease.

24 Chapter 14.4 Sustainable Agriculture
Objectives Describe the basic components of sustainable agriculture, and explain why they are desirable.

25 Chapter 14.4 Sustainable agriculture
Also called regenerative or organic farming, sustainable agriculture is based on crop rotation, reduced soil erosion, pest management, and a minimal use of soil additives.

26 Chapter 14.4 Crop Rotation Crop rotation means changing the type of crop grown on a regular cycle. (Usually 1 to 6 years). Helps prevent soil from becoming depleted in mineral nutrients, such as nitrogen.

27 Chapter 14.4 Reducing Erosion
Strip Farming - a good plan is to establish a tree (or grass) belt along the edge of every second strip

28 Chapter 14.4 Pest Management
(IPM) Integrated pest management - reduces the use of pesticides by incorporating natural predators of pest organisms.

29 References Wiley. "Non Sequitur." Cartoon. gocomics. 15 Sept Sept < Earth Science Geology, the Universe and the Environment. Glencoe, PDF Version. 17 Sept p. 23

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