2 Development of Agriculture For most of human history, we have been hunters and gatherers.Agriculture began about 10,000 years ago, when a warmer climate enabled humans to plant seeds and raise livestock.Once people mastered planting and agriculture, people began to settle in one area.This type of agriculture has developed into what is called traditional agriculture.
3 Traditional Agriculture Traditional agriculture was powered by humans and animals!Non-motorized machines, hand tools, horses, oxen, were used to complete jobs on the farm.Traditional farming was in place until the Industrial Revolution introduced motorized farm vehicles and machines.
4 Industrial Agriculture Machines replaced animals and hand tools, was faster, more efficient, and yields increased.After the Dust Bowl, irrigation and the use of fertilizers and pesticides were popularized.AKA “high input agriculture” because large amounts of energy are used to create crops.
5 The Green RevolutionIn the mid-1900s, a great demand for food existed. In order to meet that demand, scientists developed new technology, crop varieties, and farming practices.Technology: Using knowledge of genetics, scientists developed knew strains of corn, wheat, and rice that could resist drought, produced a higher yield, etc.Environmental Effects:Pesticide use -DesertificationOveruse of fertilizers - PollutionErosionNorman Borlaug
6 The Pests Have It!In North America, insects eat about 13 percent of all crops. Crops that are in tropical biomes suffer even more damage.Worldwide, about 33 percent of crops are destroyed by pests.Insects are one of many types of pests, or any organism that occurs where it is not wanted.Other pests include fungi, plants, and microorganisms.
7 Pesticides Chemicals designed to kill insects, weeds, and fungi. Insecticides, herbicides, and fungicidesSome remain in soil or make it to waterways if improperly applied or applied too heavilyPests can become resistantAll newly created pesticides are regulated in the United States. Older ones that are still used are not regulated.
8 So How Do We Control Pests and Protect Our Food Supply? Biological Pest Control – the use of living organisms to control pests.Integrated Pest Management – the modern method of controlling pests on crops.Engineering a Better Crop – make the plants stronger and able to withstand pests using genetic engineering.Which one do you think is the best method? What is the difference between the three? Please refer to the worksheet about Pest Management to answer these questions.
9 Review Questions How did agriculture begin? When did the shift from traditional to industrial agriculture occur?What was the Green Revolution and what environmental challenges did it introduce?