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Sexual Motivation Emotion Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The frequency of sexual activity varies across cultures. In general, males: Think about sex more Have more interest in purely physical sex with no emotional involvement Are more concerned about sexual fidelity The gender gap in sexual attitudes is becoming narrower. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Gender differences in mating may be due to parental investment. Parenting requires a bigger investment from the female (gestation, child dependency). Females tend to choose mates who are stable and able to provide protection for the family. Men make a smaller investment. Males tend to seek more partners and partners with high reproductive capacity. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Masters and Johnson (1966) described 4 phases of the human sexual response cycle. Excitement phase Plateau phase Orgasm Resolution phase Sexual response is strongly influenced by hormones. Testosterone is important for both males and females in maintaining sexual interest and responsiveness. A higher incidence of sexual fantasies is associated with a more satisfactory sex life. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Reliable studies on the presence of homosexual behavior are lacking. 2.8 percent of men and 1.4 percent of women identify themselves as homosexual or bisexual. 5.3 percent of men and 3.5 percent of women report sexual experiences with a person of the same sex. Genetic predisposition increases the likelihood of homosexual orientation in both sexes. Fifty to sixty percent of identical twins of gay men are also gay. About 50 percent of identical twins of lesbian women are also lesbian. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Prenatal hormones play a role. Studies examine inconsistencies on the left and right sides of the body. Brain structure may also differ between gay men and heterosexual men. An area in the hypothalamus involved in sexual behavior may be larger in gay men. Family life during childhood has not been identified as a predictor of sexual orientation. Sexual orientation is the result of a complex interplay of nature and nurture. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Homosexuality was labeled a disorder by mental health professionals until 1973. currently considered a disorder only if the individual considers it a problem Men are more likely to disapprove of homosexuality. Fifty-four percent of women and forty-five percent of men say that homosexuality is morally acceptable. A majority of Americans oppose discrimination based on sexual orientation. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Different patterns of arousal in the autonomic nervous system produce different emotions. Physiological arousal appears before the emotion is perceived.
Emotion-provoking stimuli are perceived by the senses. Relayed to cerebral cortex and sympathetic nervous system The cerebral cortex is responsible for the conscious experience of emotion. The sympathetic nervous system causes physiological arousal. Emotions are experienced psychologically and physiologically at the same time. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Earlier theories left out subjective cognitive interpretation of why a state of arousal has occurred. To experience an emotion, 2 factors must be present. Physiological arousal Cognitive interpretation of the arousal, so the person can label it as a specific emotion Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Cognitive appraisal is the first step in an emotional response. All aspects of an emotion, including physiological arousal, depend on it. Cognitive appraisal determines the type of emotional response. Critics point out that some emotional reactions are instantaneous. That is, they occur too rapidly for cognitive appraisal. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Amygdala associated with fear activated by a threatening stimulus before a person becomes consciously aware of it Cerebral Cortex regulates amygdala based on interpretation of the situation Anterior Cingulate Cortex (ACC) suppresses emotional cues associated with immediate reward Emotions are lateralized in cerebral hemispheres. sad feelings: left hemisphere perception of others’ emotions: right hemisphere pattern more pronounced in females Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Affective Neuroscience study of neurological foundations of emotion Each emotion has a distinctive pattern in the brain. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Women are as likely as men to express anger in private, but less likely than men to express it publicly (Cupach & Canary, 1995). Women respond with more emotional intensity than men. experience both greater joy and sorrow (Fujita, Diener, & Sandvik, 1991) Women’s cortisol levels increased after discussions of negative events; men’s levels remain constant. Might women be more physiologically sensitive to negative emotion? Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Basic Emotions unlearned, universal across cultures fear, anger, disgust, surprise, joy or happiness, and sadness or distress culture and emotion display rules: dictate how emotions should be expressed Each culture has an “accent” with facial expressions. Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Muscular movements involved in facial expressions produce corresponding emotions. example: feel angry and adopt an angry expression, then feel angrier Martin Seligman We can and should exert control over our emotions. maintain positive states and avoid negative ones developed positive psychology movement Copyright © 2011 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
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