Presentation on theme: "Ch. 10 Government Spending. Section 1 Government Spending in Perspective Total government expenditures at all levels was almost $2.9 trillion in 2001-"— Presentation transcript:
Government Spending in Perspective Total government expenditures at all levels was almost $2.9 trillion in 2001- about $10, 300 for every American. Government spending did not begin to increase until the 1940s for 3 reasons: 1.High costs of World War II. 2.The Great Depression changed public opinion about the government assisting in everyday economic affairs and improving Americans’ economic welfare. 3.The success of large-scale public work projects.
Two Kinds of Spending 1.Goods and services that the government buys includes everything from tanks for the nation’s defense to paper and soap for its employees. 2.Transfer payments include Social Security, welfare, and unemployment compensation. Two kinds of transfer payments exist. (a.)Payment made from one level of government to another, it is called grant-in-aid. (b.)Subsidies are payments made to individuals or entire industries to encourage or protect a certain economic activity.
Impact of Government Spending Government spending affects resource allocation because purchase decisions, subsides, and transfer payments either stimulate economic activity or affect the factors of production. Government spending influences income distribution when transfer payments increase family incomes, federal projects provide or take away jobs, and subsides give income support to American workers. Government spending creates competition with the private sector.
Establishing the Federal Budget The Federal Budget consists of: – Mandatory spending, which includes interest payments on borrowed money, Social Security, and Medicare (two-thirds of the budget) – Discretionary spending, which includes programs that Congress must approve annually (one-third of the budget) The government’s fiscal year is from October 1 to September 30.
Adopting a Budget 1. 1 st step is executive formulation- the president confers with his advisors and drafts a budget which he submits to Congress. 2. 2 nd step is House action- Congress has the power to approve, modify, or disapprove the president’s proposed budget. – The house sets budget targets for each category of the discretionary budget, then assigns appropriations bills to various subcommittees where subcommittee members study and debate each bill.
– If the bill is approved in subcommittee, it is sent to the full House Appropriations Committee. – If approved there, it goes to the entire House for a vote. – All these congressional steps must be completed by September 15 each year.
3. 3 rd step is senate action- the Senate may approve the House bill or it may draft its own version. If difference exist, a joint House- Senate conference committee works out a compromise bill. 4. Last step is final approval- the House and Senate send the bill to the president for his approval or veto. Once signed, it becomes the official budget for the new fiscal year.
Major Spending Categories Mandatory spending categories include: Social Security Income security Medicare interest on the federal debt Some health programs Veterans’ benefits Discretionary spending categories include: Education Employment Social services Transportation Administration of justice Natural resources Environment
Approving Spending Most states approve their budgets using a process similar to the federal government’s process. Some states have a balanced budget amendment that requires annual spending not to exceed revenues. Local governments empower representatives- the mayor, city council, or country judge- to approve budget.
State Government Expenditures 80% spent on intergovernmental expenditures: public welfare, insurance trust funds, higher education, highways, hospitals, and interest on public debt. 20% spent on variety expenses: corrections, health, natural resources, and utilities