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The Nature Of Soil Ms. ScerraSection I The Nature Of Soil Ms. Scerra
Formation of soil can take thousands of years
Soil is a mixture of weathered rock, decayed organic matter, mineral fragments, water, and air
Formation is influenced by climate, slope, type of rock, types of vegetation, and length of time that the rock has been weathering
Composition of soil The ingredients that make up soil
1. Clay, silt, and sand are small particles of sediment2. Decaying, dark-colored plant and animal material is called humus 3. Small spaces between soil particles may be filled with air or water
Soil profile Made up of different layers of soil
Horizon O Top layer of vegetation and organic matter
1. Horizon A – Top layer of soilMay be covered with organic litter that may turn into humus Fertile layer with more humus and less rock and mineral particles than other soil horizons
2. Horizon B – middle soil layerContains less humus and is lighter in color than A horizon
Minerals travel from horizon A to B horizon in a process called leaching
Horizon C – bottom soil layerHas very little organic matter and is not strongly affected by leaching
Contains rock – the parent material from the soilGlaciers can deposit soil that did not form from the bedrock beneath it
Soil types differ in different places
Different regions have different climates that affect soil development
Parent rock affects soil formation and type of vegetation that grows in a region
Time affects soil development because the longer the weathering has occurred, the less the soil resembles parent rock
Soil on steep slopes develops poorly
Section II : Soil ErosionBy: Ms. Scerra
Soil erosion or loss is important because plants do not grow as well when topsoil is lost.
Causes and Effects of Soil Erosion:Many human activities disturb the natural balance between soil production and soil erosion.
Agricultural CultivationIncreased farming removes the plant cover, leaving soils open to wind and water erosion.
Forest Harvesting Removes forest vegetation which increases erosion and particularly damages tropical rain forest soil
Overgrazing Results when animals graze until almost all ground cover disappears
Excess Sediment Can damage the environment when soil erosion is severe
Preventing Soil ErosionSoil must be protected / conserved
Manage Crops Farmers plant shelter belts of trees to break the force of the wind
Bare soil can be covered with decaying plants to hold soil in place
Farmers can graze animals on vegetation instead of plowing it under
With no-till farming, plant stalks are left in the field to provide cover for soil
Reduce Erosion On SlopesContour farming reduces soil erosion by planting along the contours of slopes
Terracing creates steep-sided flat areas for crops on the sides of hills and mountains
Reduce erosion of exposed soilWater sprayed onto bare soil to reduce wind erosion
Topsoil is replaced and trees are planted
Water flow can be controlled in strip mines
After mining, the land can be reclaimed
The Nature of Soil Chapter 7, Section 2.
Jeopardy ReduceWeatheringSoil Making soil Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Q $100 Q $200 Q $300 Q $400 Q $500 Final Jeopardy.
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Rocks, Weathering, and Soil Information
The Nature of Soil Essential Question:
Soil is a mixture of weathered rock and organic matter
Chapter 7: Weathering & Soil
Soil Soil is made of A. weathered rock/ sediments
Processes that break down rock. Rock is broken apart but not changed chemically.
The Nature of Soil. Fact Finders Use your textbook, pages , to fill in the blanks. 1._______ is a mixture of weathered rock, decayed organic.
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