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Presentation on theme: "OBJECTIVE 6 TERMS : DISEASE TRASNMISSION TERMS YOU SHOULD KNOW MAU&feature=related"— Presentation transcript:

1 OBJECTIVE 6 TERMS : DISEASE TRASNMISSION TERMS YOU SHOULD KNOW MAU&feature=related MAU&feature=related (revolting facts) vector borneindirect contact direct contactfomite antibioticantiviral vaccinesoutbreak epidemicpandemic carrierborne

2 Pathogen - a micorbe that causes disease Transmission of a disease – the path a pathogen takes to get from host to host Host – the infected organism Carrier – an organism that harbors a pathogen and can transmit the pathogen to others but shows no symptoms TERMS Direct contact Indirect contact Food/air-borne Vector borne

3 4 MAIN TRANSMISSION PATHS FOR PATHOGENS Direct contact Indirect contact Food/air-borne Vector borne

4 Direct contact Indirect contact Food/air-borne Vector borne Direct contact - transmission requires physical contact with an infected person Direct contact through: kissing, sexual contact, oral secretions (saliva), blood, or contact with body lesions(sores or open wounds). Examples of pathogens spread though direct contact: Cold, flu, HIV, Staphylococcus bacteria, Hepatitis A DISEASE TRANSMISSION PATHWAYS: DIRECT CONTACT

5 Direct contact Indirect contact Food/air-borne Vector borne Indirect contact – a person is infected from contact with a contaminated surface. Some organisms are capable of surviving on surfaces for an extended period of time Indirect contact includes: touching contaminated surfaces then putting contaminated skin in mouth, eyes, nose, etc. Examples: flu, Hepatitis B, HIV (via contaminated needles) DISEASE TRANSMISSION PATHWAYS: INDIRECT CONTACT Watch the video: Fomites

6 Direct contact Indirect contact Food/air-borne Vector borne Food Borne- transmission through eating or drinking water or food that is contaminated with feces (poop) or undercooked meat Process – Pathogens enter the body through ingestion and inside the digestive system (usually within the intestines) these microorganisms multiply and are then shed from the body in feces. DISEASE TRANSMISSION PATHWAYS: FOOD BORNE PATHOGENS

7 Direct contact Indirect contact Food/air-borne Vector borne DISEASE TRANSMISSION PATHWAYS: AIR BORNE Air Borne- residue from evaporated droplets or dust particles containing microorganisms remain suspended in air for long periods of time, capable of surviving for long periods of time outside the body and must be resistant to drying. transmission occurs when these droplets enter the upper and lower respiratory tracts of a person Examples: Tuberculosis, Chickenpox, Measles, Valley Fever

8 Direct contact Indirect contact Food/air-borne Vector borne Vector Borne - vectors are animals that are capable of transmitting diseases, transmission requires physical contact with a vector. Or the vector‘s feces Vector Borne includes: Examples of vectors are flies, mites, fleas, ticks, rats, dogs, and mosquitoes (the most common vector ). Mosquitoes transfer disease through the saliva which comes in contact with their hosts when they are withdrawing blood. Examples: malaria, rabies, Lyme disease, West Nile Virus, Giardia, bubonic plague DISEASE TRANSMISSION PATHWAYS: VECTOR BORNE


10 VACCINES Produced using bacteria or viruses that are Examples for virual pathogens Examples for bacterial pathogens weakened (attenuated): can only reproduce <20 times. measles, mumps, chickenpox Typhoid Inactivated: cannot reproduce polio, hepatitis A, influenza, rabies plague, cholera proteins on the surface of the virus OR toxins produced by the bacteria. hepatitis B, HPV Purpose: to stimulate the production of antibodies and provide immunity to disease

11 Polio virus s spread through person-to-person contact. Fecal contaminated food or drink is contaminated by feces. Most infected people (90%) have no symptoms One in 200 infections leads to irreversible paralysis, usually in the legs. Polio cases have decreased by over 99% since 1988, from an estimated 350 000 cases, to 223 reported cases in 2012. The reduction is the result of the global vaccination program. POLIOMYELITIS /Dataandmonitoring/Poliothisw eek/Poliocasesworldwide.aspx No Cure Only Vaccinations

12 90% of antibiotics are made from bacteria or fungi Produced by a process of fermentation - the source microorganism is grown in large containers (100,000– 150,000 liters or more) containing a liquid growth medium. Antibiotics destroy the bacteria or prevent bacteria from reproducing ANTIBIOTICS – CHEMICAL MADE TO KILL BACTERA

13 BUBONIC PLAGUE (YERSINIA PESTIS) 25 million people died between 1347 and 1352: one-third of Europe's people. Today, the World Health Organization reports 1,000 to 3,000 cases of plague every year. Antibiotics used include: tetracyclines, Streptomycin, and Gentamicin. tetracyclines No vaccine SHAKESPEARE

14 ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE “Each year in the United States, at least 2 million people become infected with bacteria that are resistant to antibiotics and at least 23,000 people die each year as a direct result of these infections.” (Threat 2013)

15 Made primarily from inactivated viruses Antivirals do not destroy the viruses - they inhibit the reproduction by blocking the ‘keys’ on the virus ANTIVIRALS

16 Destroys the cell wall of the fungal cells Prevents the fungus from growing and reproducing Examples: Aspergillosis, ringworm, athlete's foot ANTIFUNGAL

17 R o is the basic reproduction number for infectious diseases R o is the number of people one infected person infects For example: an R o value of 3 means that each infected person will infect 3 other people BASIC REPRODUCTION NUMBER FOR INFECTIOUS DISEASES, R O



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