Presentation on theme: "Introduction to Biotechnology Ms. Martinez LSHS2014 DIRECTIONS: COPY the Notes in yellow."— Presentation transcript:
Introduction to Biotechnology Ms. Martinez LSHS2014 DIRECTIONS: COPY the Notes in yellow.
What is DNA and Why is it Important? Your body contains about 40,000 genes. The DNA in your genes gives instructions that makes you who you are. For example, different genes in your body determine your eye color and your height.
Cells Every living thing is made up of cells. There are differences between different types of cells
The Cell Nucleus and Chromosomes Inside the cell nucleus, 6 feet of DNA, are packaged in the 46 chromosomes.
What is a Gene? Genes cluster together to form a chromosome. Chromosomes are made up of thousands of genes, which in turn are made up of DNA. OrganismCell Chromosome Genes DNA COPY
Genes Each of the 46 chromosomes contains the DNA for thousands of individual genes. Genes are the units of heredity. Each gene is a segment of double-stranded DNA that holds the recipe for making a specific molecule, usually a protein.
Review: Proteins Proteins, which are made up of amino acids, are the body’s workhorses. Proteins are essential components of all organs and cellular activities.
The 40,000 genes in the nucleus determines shape and shape determines function.
How Similar are our Genes? Human beings are 99.9% genetically identical to each other. Identical twins share the same DNA. We share 98% of our genes with chimpanzees. Also, 50% of our genes are the same as cabbages.
Human Genome Humans have about 100 trillion cells. Each of the 100 trillion cells in the human body (except Red blood corpuscles) contains the entire human genome. The Human Genome is all the genetic information necessary to build a human being.
This information is encoded in 6 billion base pairs of DNA. Where did this information come from? Half of the DNA came from your mother and the half came from your father. How? Sperm Egg
Each sperm cell has 23 chromosomes. Each egg cell has 23 chromosomes. When fertilization occurs, there are now 46 chromosomes. Sperm Egg
What is Biotechnology? Biotechnology applies the knowledge of biology to enhance and improve the environment, health, and food supply. Using biotechnology, scientists work to develop: environment-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels and plastics; environment-friendly alternatives to fossil fuels and plastics; new medicines, vaccines and disease diagnostic tools; new medicines, vaccines and disease diagnostic tools; and higher yielding and more nutrient-rich crop plants. and higher yielding and more nutrient-rich crop plants.
Biotechnology: Medicine Biotechnology can be used in medicine.
Insulin is important for blood sugar metabolism and levels – diabetics do not have enough and therefore need an external supply. Insulin used to be harvested from pigs, from their pancreases, but now all human insulin is produced from bacteria with an insulin gene added to them
The DNA of plants and animals can also be altered. PLANTS 1. disease-resistant and insect-resistant crops 2. Hardier fruit 3. 70-75% of food in supermarket is genetically modified.
Genetically modified organisms are called transgenic organisms. TRANSGENIC ANIMALS 1. Mice – used to study human immune system 2. Chickens – more resistant to infections 3. Cows – increase milk supply and leaner meat 4. Goats, sheep and pigs – produce human proteins in their milk
Human DNA in a Goat Cell This goat contains a human gene that codes for a blood clotting agent. The blood clotting agent can be harvested in the goat’s milk.. Transgenic Goat
The desired DNA is added to an egg cell. How is a Transgenic Animal created?