2 The Atmosphere Air is a MIXTURE of gases. Nitrogen = 78% Oxygen = 21% Argon = < 1%CO2 = .039%
3 The Atmosphere Components of Air Gases Water vapor Varies 0 – 4%Depends on location and weather patternAerosols (solids and liquids suspended in air)Ozone3 atoms of oxygen bonded together. O3Ozone layer located at the top of the Stratosphere
4 Structure of Atmosphere Air PressureDecreases as you rise in altitudeAverage = mb (millibars)Measured with a barometer
5 Structure of Atmosphere 4 layers based on temperature change.TroposphereLayer we live inTemp. decreaseStratosphereOzone layer hereTemp. increaseMesosphereColdestThermosphereSpace shuttleHubble telescope
6 Atmospheric Heating Heating of the Atmosphere from the Sun’s energy. 3 methods of heat transferEnergy TransferConductionby contact of moleculesConvectionBy different densities of air (hot/cold)RadiationBy electromagnetic wavesSurface
7 GREEN HOUSE EFFECT Incoming radiation Gets absorbed by surface Mostly visible lightGets absorbed by surfaceChanged to Infrared (heat)Greenhouse gases:H2OCO2Absorb Infrared heat and keep air near surface warm.Increase of Greenhouse gasesCauses increase of heat trappedCalled Global Warming
8 Ozone Layer Ozone Layer Ozone Problem O3 Absorbs UV rays from sun Changes it to heatCauses increase temperature in stratosphereOzone ProblemO3 layer is getting thinnerBroken up by CFC’s (chlorofluorocarbons)Causes increase UV rays to reach surface (increase skin cancer)
9 Atmospheric Energy Budget What happens to the Energy of the Sun as it hits the atmosphere?Of the total energy that strikes our atmosphere:Radiation absorbed by clouds or atmosphere?Total scattered and reflected back to space?Absorbed by Earth’s surface?100%20%30%50%
10 Affect of Surface Material Albedo: Reflectivity of the surfaceHigh Albedo = Very reflective, poor absorberLow Albedo = Good absorber, poor reflectorColor:Darker color = good absorber = Low AlbedoLight color = good reflector = High Albedo
11 Effect of Surface Material Land Verses WaterWhich heats up the quickest?Which heats to a higher temperature?Which will cool down the quickest?Which will cool to a cooler temperature?How does this temperature change affect where you live?
12 Effect of Surface Material How does living near the ocean affect the air temperature?Winter?Summer?How does living inland affect the air temperature?Which location would have a greater change of temperature during the year?
13 Moisture in the Atmosphere Humidity = Amount of water vapor in the air5g H2O/kg of airSaturated air = Holding all the water vapor it can hold.Capacity = The amount of something it can holdWhen something is filled to CAPACITY it is SATURATED.Water vapor Capacity or AirDirect Relationship:As air temperature INCREASES, its water vapor capacity INCREASES.
14 Moisture in the Atmosphere Relative Humidity = The amount of water vapor in the air compared to how much it can hold at that temperature.Given as a % of fullness.As the temperature changes throughout the day, so does the Relative Humidity.
15 Moisture in the Atmosphere Dew-point Temperature: The temperature the air must cool down to for the water-vapor in the air to condense as liquid onto objects.Usually occurs in the evening as the temperature decreases.Relative humidity = %Air is (holding all the water-vapor it can hold)More humid air = higher dew-point temperatureWhat do you call it when the dew-point is below freezing?
16 Moisture in the Atmosphere CloudsClassified by:Height above groundLowMiddleHighAppearanceLayeredPuffyWispy