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**Density describes the amount of mass in a given**

Science 8 Unit 3 - Fluids Chapter 8 Density describes the amount of mass in a given volume of a substance. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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Defining Density Density is a measure of the mass contained in a given volume. Substances with a lower density will float on substances with a higher density. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**Density and the Particle Theory**

According to the particle theory, different substances have different-sized particles. The size, shape, and mass of the particles determine how many particles and how much mass can “fit into” a given space. Therefore, each substance has its own unique density, based on particle size, shape, and mass. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**Density and the Particle Theory**

Generally the greater the mass compared to volume, the more tightly packed the particles are and hence the greater the density. Which of the following would have the higher density? (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**Density and the Particle Theory**

The particle theory states that there are spaces among the particles of matter. Q. In which state of matter are the spaces among particles the least? Greatest? Generally the space between particles is greatest in gases and least in solids. Q. What relationship can be made between space between particles and density? (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**Density and the Particle Theory**

Will the rock pictured fall more quickly through water or air? Explain based upon the density of the particles. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**Density and the Particle Theory**

In general, gases are less dense than liquids and liquids are less dense than solids. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Generally, matter with the highest density has the greatest mass making it heavier. Which of the liquids in the diagram has the greatest density? Which has the Least? (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Which is heavier? Which is heavier a pound of feathers or a pound of lead? The answer is neither, because they both weigh a pound. This riddle reveals a confusion that some people have regarding weight versus density. Density involves weight but that alone is not enough. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Which is heavier if the volume is constant? Which is heavier a cubic centimeter of feathers or a cubic centimeter of lead? When we specify a certain volume, we are less fooled. We realize that for the same volume, lead will be a lot heavier. In other words, lead is more dense than feathers. Density is a measure of the mass AND the volume that mass occupies. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Objects may have the same mass but not have the same density. You can look at these and tell that the smaller red box has a higher density than the grey box. It has the same mass but packed into a smaller volume. The Red Box is More Dense (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Remember At constant temperature and pressure matter has a constant mass to volume ratio When temperature and pressure remain the same, as the volume of a type of matter increases so to does its mass by the same factor (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Therefore the ratio of mass to volume is a constant value. This constant value is called density. Where D = Density (g/cm3) M = Mass (g) V = Volume (cm3) Note for water: 1 cm3 = 1 ml = 1 g (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Determining Mass and Volume Mass can be determined using a balance scale, Volume can be determined geometrically or for irregularly shaped ojects using Displacement. Displacement is the amount of space that an object takes up when placed in a fluid. In the diagram, the volume of water displaced equals to the volume of the rock, that is 2cm3. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Sample Problem 1 A student determines that a piece of an unknown material has a mass of 5.8 g and a volume of 7.5 cm3. What is the density of the material? (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Sample Problem 2 Iron has a known density of 7.87 g/cm3. What would be the mass of a 250 cm3 piece of iron? (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Sample Problem 3 Mercury has a density of 13.5 g/cm3. How much space (Volume) would 50.0 g of mercury occupy? (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Relationship Between Mass, Volume and Density**

Practice: Complete density calculations for the following table. Complete Practice problems on page 312, 313 and 314 of your text. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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Changes in Density The particle theory states that the particles of a substance spread out as they gain energy when heated. Since they spread out, the particles take up more space as they are heated, which means that the density of a substance decreases. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**The Less Dense heated air rises above the cooler air outside.**

Changes in Density This Hot Air Balloon is able to float due to the differences in density between the heated air inside the balloon and the unheated air outside. The Less Dense heated air rises above the cooler air outside. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**Changes in Density Tire Pressure is affected by temperature.**

The pictures on the right represent the same tire at different times of the year. Although both tires contain the same mass of air the density of the winter tire is much less. Can you explain why? Winter Summer (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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Changes in Density Although most substances are denser in their solid form, water is an exception to this rule. When water freezes, the particles move slightly farther apart as they become fixed in position. This means that ice is actually less dense than liquid water, so it floats. Water is most dense at 4 oC. Consequently the water at the bottom of lakes and oceans is usually around this temperature especially during winter months (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**Natural Changes in Density**

Have you ever noticed that wood is much lighter after it has dried than when it was first cut… Once a tree has been cut and is left to dry, the water particles in the wood evaporate, and are replaced with air. Because air is much less dense than water, the dry wood is less dense than the moist wood (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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**Natural Changes in Density**

Recall our work from the first unit.. Explain using the concept of density why it is easier to float in salt water than fresh water. (c) McGraw Hill Ryerson 2007

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