Presentation on theme: "Canada’s Climate Systems “Identifying weather and climate statements”"— Presentation transcript:
1 Canada’s Climate Systems “Identifying weather and climate statements” Weather – the day-to-day conditions in the atmosphere.What would these conditions include?Climate – the weather patterns of a particular region averaged over a long period of time.Complete the handout -“Identifying weather and climate statements”Do all areas of Canada have the same climate? Why?What factors influence the climate across Canada?
3 Factors affecting Canada’s Climate 1. Latitude – the distance north or south of the equator.Canada is a northern country – closer to the north pole than the equator.
4 An increase in latitude generally means a decrease in temperature. (Further from the equator – colder)A decrease in latitude generally means an increase in temperature.(Closer to the equator – warmer)Q. Why does it get colder as latitude increases and warmer as latitude decreases?
6 A. At low latitudes the sun’s rays strike the earth at a direct angle, are more intense and heat a small area, it is warmer. At high latitudes, because of the curve of the earth, radiation strikes the earth at an indirect angle, is spread over a larger area, is less intense, and it is colder.
7 2. Ocean currents – the movement of large quantities of ocean water. North Pacific Current – brings warm water / air to coast of British Columbia. Labrador Current – brings cold water / air to Newfoundland & Labrador.Gulf Stream – brings warm water / air to Atlantic Canada.
8 3. Wind and Air MassesAir mass – A huge body of air with the same temperature and moisture conditions throughout.Wind – air moving from one place to another.High pressure – cold air sinking. (cold air is heavier)Low pressure – warm air rising. (warm air is lighter)Air always moves from high pressure areas to low pressure areas.Warm air masses originate in the south. (equator)Cold air masses originate in the north. (poles)
11 Prevailing wind – predictable winds that blow in a set pattern. In Canada the most predominant wind is the Westerlies.Front – the leading edge of an air mass.Warm front – the leading edge of a warm air mass.Cold front – the leading edge of a cold air mass.
12 When air pressure is low, skies are often cloudy and precipitation occurs. When air pressure is high, sunny skies prevail.When a cold and a warm air mass collide, warm air rises up over the cold air resulting in precipitation and storms.
13 4. Polar jet stream – a fast-moving body of air at high altitudes that steers weather systems and storms from west to east.( km/h at an altitude of 8000 – m)Forms an ever-changing boundary between cold air masses from the north and warm air masses from the south.The clash of different air masses along the Polar jet stream frontproduces severe weather, including violent thunderstorms andtornadoes.
14 5. Elevation – the height above sea level. Temperature decreases as elevation increases.
15 Mountains can cause precipitation Leeward - side of a mountain that is sheltered from the wind.Windward - side of a mountain from which the wind is blowing.Places on windward side = more rain. (Vancouver)Places on leeward side = less rain. (Kelowna)Orographic precipitation – mountains force moisture laden air to rise and cool and drop the moisture as precipitation.
16 6. Large Bodies of WaterWater heats up and cools down more slowly than land.Bodies of water have a moderating effect on temperature. Places close by will have less extreme temperatures.In summer the ocean is cooler than the land, winds from the ocean cools the land. In winter the water keeps the heat longer, and winds from the ocean warm the land.Places inland will have more extreme temperatures.In summer the land is warm, meaning warm temperatures. In winter the land is cold, resulting in colder temperatures. No ocean winds are nearby to moderate the temperature.
17 Maritime Climate - located close to the ocean has moderate temperatureshas cooler summers and warmer wintersreceives more precipitationContinental Climate - located away from the oceanhas extreme temperatureshas warmer summers and colder wintersreceives less precipitation
18 How does climate influence human activity? Types of sports activity (skiing, hockey, baseball)Closing of business or schools (snow storms)Snow clearingMaterials homes built out ofTypes of clothing usedLeisure activity (snowmobiling)Types of natural disasters(hurricanes, tornadoes)Home heating (demand for wood, oil electricity)Economic activity (farming, forestry)How does human activity influence climate?Pollution – acid rainPollution – global warming
19 Analyzing Climate Statistics Climate Graph: a combined line and bar graph showing average monthly temperatures and precipitation levels.When reading a climate graph it is important to remember these points:the temperature scale is shown along the right side and is usually drawn as a red line on the graphthe precipitation scale is shown along the left side and is usually drawn as a blue bar graph
20 Canada’s Natural Vegetation Systems biome – a large region on the Earth, which is named for the distinct characteristics of the plants that live within it.The location of biomes is influenced by climate (temperature and precipitation) it helps determines what the natural vegetation will be.Natural vegetation – the plants that are native to an area rather than those that have been planted or grown by people.
22 Canada’s Water Systems Much of the water that falls in Canada ends up in an interconnected network of waterways that include:Lakes Rivers Wetlands GroundwaterWetlands – a place where the water table is at ground level.Groundwater – water found beneath the earth’s surface in the spaces in soil and bedrock.Runoff – water that runs off the land in rivers and lakes.
23 Drainage basin - the area of land from which all water received as precipitation flows to a particular ocean.Watershed – the area of land that drains into a particular river system or body of water.Drainage divide – a narrow place of high land that separates one drainage basin from another.Canada has about two million lakes!Great Lakes system is the largest of the Atlantic Ocean drainage basin9 million Canadians and 31 million Americans depend on the waterToronto alone uses about 540 billion litres of water per yearUsed for agriculture, industry, manufacturing, fishing, hydroelectric and thermal power, and recreation
25 Stages In A River’s Life Cycle Rivers can be one of three types, based on characteristics determined by their location:1. Youthful Rivers are usually found in areas of high relief (mountains).Steep slopeSmall body of waterRapid flowRelatively straight courseBecause youthful rivers appear in mountain areas with a high slope, the water runs faster and erodes deeper into the riverbed. For this reason they tend to be narrow in width.
26 2. Mature Rivers are found in areas where there is a gentle slope and moderate relief. Broad river valleyWide in widthTributaries (small streams flowing into the river)Gentle, “meandering” course (winding and curved in shape)Mature rivers have slower moving water than youthful rivers due to lower slopes. For this reason sediment (bits of eroded rock) tends to settle along the river’s edge, creating obstacles for the river to flow around.
27 3. Old Rivers usually appear in areas of nearly flat land towards the end of a river’s course. Very slow flowing waterElaborate and well developed “meanders” or curvesMuddy due to suspended sedimentSwamp-like conditions due to poor drainageOld rivers experience much more sediment deposit than mature rivers, due to a very slow movement of water. This often creates oxbow lakes, horseshoe-shaped bodies of water that that have been cut off from the main river.
28 Which parts of this river system would be labelled youthful, mature, or old?
29 Canada’s Soil Systems A single handful of healthy soil contains more living organisms than the numberof people on the planet!Soil profile – a cross of the different layers in the soil and rock below the soil.Humus – dark upper layer of soil containing decayed organic material.Podzol – soil found in areas covered by forests with cool, moist climates.Chernozem – grassland soil rich in organic material.
31 Functions of soil include: A place to grow foodSupports trees that provide oxygenSoaks up and purifies waterPeople have increased the use of fertilizers to enrich soils, and pesticides to kill pests that harm crops.However fertilizers can get into water and encourage plant growth. As the plants die and decompose it reduces the oxygen in the water that fish need.Pesticides kill many of the creatures that make the soil system work well.
32 How does Canada’s vegetation systems influence us? How do we influence the vegetation systems?How does Canada’s water systems influence us?How do we influence the water systems?How does Canada’s soil systems influence us?How do we influence the soil systems?
33 How Big is Your Ecological Footprint? Ecological footprint – the amount of the Earth’s resources it takes to support your lifestyle.Your ecological footprint is made up of many factors:• your transportation use• your water use• the space you use to work and play• how much money you spend• how far the food you eat had to be shipped• how much living space you have• how much garbage you createWorld average is about 2.2 hectares.