Presentation on theme: "PARAPHRASING AND CITING RESEARCH. HOW TO CREATE A PRESENTATION BASED ON RESEARCH When you are creating any kind of presentation or essay based on research,"— Presentation transcript:
HOW TO CREATE A PRESENTATION BASED ON RESEARCH When you are creating any kind of presentation or essay based on research, there are three ways to convey that research to your audience: 1.Direct quote 2.Paraphrase 3.Summary
WHAT ARE THE DIFFERENCES AMONG QUOTING, PARAPHRASING, AND SUMMARIZING? These three ways of incorporating other writers' work into your own writing differ according to the closeness of your writing to the source writing. Quotations must be identical to the original, using a narrow segment of the source. They must match the source document word for word and must be attributed to the original author. Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage, taking a somewhat broader segment of the source and condensing it slightly. Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are significantly shorter than the original and take a broad overview of the source material. *Directly quoted from Owl Purdue Online Writing Lab. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/
EXAMPLES IN WRITING Writers frequently intertwine summaries, paraphrases, and quotations. As part of a summary of an article, a chapter, or a book, a writer might include paraphrases of various key points blended with quotations of striking or suggestive phrases as in the following example: In his famous and influential work The Interpretation of Dreams, Sigmund Freud argues that dreams are the "royal road to the unconscious" (page #), expressing in coded imagery the dreamer's unfulfilled wishes through a process known as the "dream-work" (page #). According to Freud, actual but unacceptable desires are censored internally and subjected to coding through layers of condensation and displacement before emerging in a kind of rebus puzzle in the dream itself (page #). *Directly quoted from Owl Purdue Online Writing Lab. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/
HOW TO USE QUOTATIONS, PARAPHRASES, AND SUMMARIES Read the entire text, noting the key points and main ideas. Summarize in your own words what the single main idea of the essay is. Paraphrase important supporting points that come up in the essay. Consider any words, phrases, or brief passages that you believe should be quoted directly. *Directly quoted from Owl Purdue Online Writing Lab. https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/ https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/01/
2 ND SUBMISSION OF YOUR PRESENTATION WITH ANNOTATION INCLUDED Although the directions did not specify, the expectation for your presentation on your author was that you would paraphrase your research, not directly quote your research. For your second submission of the presentation, you are expected to rewrite your slides if necessary and paraphrase any research material that was directly quoted from your source. You will also be expected to cite the source your paraphrase comes from after each bullet point, or if the single slide contains information from the same source, at the bottom of the slide. I expect to see that every source on your works cited list has been cited somewhere in the presentation (and I will be checking that the information on your slide indeed came from that source.)
HOW TO PARAPHRASE A paraphrase does not mean just changing up a few words here and there. A paraphrase should be a complete rephrasing of the information, excepting common or proper nouns that you cannot come up with a synonym for. Strategies to ensure a correct paraphrase: -Change the order of the content as written in the original text -Come up with synonyms for everything you can -Change up phrasing and syntax
EXAMPLES OF PARAPHRASING Here is a direct quote from Ernest Hemingway’s Biography.com profile: In high school, Hemingway worked on his school newspaper, Trapeze and Tabula, writing primarily about sports. Immediately after graduation, the budding journalist went to work for the Kansas City Star, gaining experience that would later influence his distinctively stripped-down prose style. Here is a bad example of a paraphrase for this information: Hemingway worked on his school paper, Trapeze and Tabula in high school. He wrote mostly about sports. Soon after graduation, the journalist started working for Kansas City Star and got experience that would later influence his unique stripped-down prose style. What’s wrong with this paraphrase?
EXAMPLES OF PARAPHRASING In high school, Hemingway worked on his school newspaper, Trapeze and Tabula, writing primarily about sports. Immediately after graduation, the budding journalist went to work for the Kansas City Star, gaining experience that would later influence his distinctively stripped-down prose style. Strong paraphrase example: Hemingway’s writing career began in high school where he worked on the student newspaper, Trapeze and Tabula. One of the things from Hemingway’s past that had a huge impact on his writing career, specifically his simplistic style, was working for a newspaper after high school at the Kansas City Star (Ernest Hemingway Biography). What do you notice about this paraphrase compared to the original text?
CITING YOUR PARAPHRASES If citing a book, use this format: (author’s last name and page #). Ex: Human beings have been described as "symbol-using animals" (Burke 3). If citing a website, use this format: (name of author (if available), name of website article as listed on your works cited page). Ex: One online film critic stated that Fitzcarraldo is "...a beautiful and terrifying critique of obsession and colonialism" (Garcia, “Herzog: a Life”). *Examples from OWL Purdue Writing Lab; visit this link for more details on parenthetical citation: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/747/02/