2 HearingListeningThe vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain.Paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear.
3 DefinitionEffective listening is listening to the words of the speaker and the meaning of the words.Active listening is a process in which the listener takes active responsibility to understand the content and feeling of what is being said and then checks with the speaker to see if he/she heard what the speaker intended to communicate.
4 Basic Communication Skills Profile ________________________________________________Communication Order Learned Extent Used Extent Taught____________________________________________Listening First First FourthSpeaking Second Second ThirdReading Third Third SecondWriting Fourth Fourth First
5 Meaning Listening Is With The Mind Hearing With The Senses Listening Is Conscious.An Active Process Of Eliciting InformationIdeas, Attitudes And EmotionsInterpersonal, Oral Exchange
6 Fallacies about Listening Listening is not my problem!Listening and hearing are the sameGood readers are good listenersSmarter people are better listenersListening improves with ageLearning not to listenThinking about what we are going to say rather than listening to a speakerTalking when we should be listeningHearing what we expect to hear rather than what is actually saidNot paying attention( preoccupation, prejudice, self-centeredness, stero-type)Listening skills are difficult to learn
7 Purpose of Listening To gain new Information and Idea To question and test evidence and assumptionsTo be inspiredTo improve your own communication
9 Read all the instructions below before doing anything. 1 Read all the instructions below before doing anything. 1. Write your name in the top right corner of the paper 2. Draw five small squares in the top left corner 3. Put a circle around each square 4. Put an X on the lower left-hand corner 5. Draw a triangle around the X you have just made 6. Sign your name at the bottom of the page 7. On the back of your page multiply 70x30 8. Write the answer to the above problem adjacent to your signature 9. Check whether you have done all the above correctly Now that you have finished reading carefully, do only the first instruction.
10 Stages of the Listening Process HearingFocusing on the messageComprehending and interpretingAnalyzing and EvaluatingRespondingRemembering
12 Appreciative Listening Listening for pleasure or enjoyment.
13 Empathic ListeningListening to provide emotional support for the speaker.
14 Comprehensive Listening Listening to understand the message of a speaker.
15 Critical ListeningListening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it.
16 Four Causes of Poor Listening Not concentratingListening too hardJumping to conclusionsFocusing on delivery and personal appearance
17 Spare “Brain Time”The difference between the rate at which most people talk (120 to 150 words a minute) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 to 800 words a minute).
18 How to Become a Better Listener Take listening seriouslyResist distractionsDon’t be diverted by appearance or delivery
19 How to Become a Better Listener Focus your listeningDevelop note-taking skillsSuspend judgment
20 Active Listening Skills The Heart of Empathic Understanding
21 Active ListeningGiving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker’s point of view.
22 Skills for Active Listening Examples:Sitting forwardEye contactNodding headBODY LANGUAGEAmerican Student Achievement Institute
23 Skills for Active Listening OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONSExamples:What happened after that?Who was there?What did they do?How did that work?American Student Achievement Institute
24 Skills for Active Listening Examples:So what I hear you saying is . . .REPEAT CONTENTAmerican Student Achievement Institute
25 Skills for Active Listening ACKNOWLEDGING FEELINGS Examples:You’re feeling ___.It makes you (feeling) that . . .American Student Achievement Institute
26 Reflecting Purpose Action Example: To show that you understand how the person feels.ActionReflects the speaker’s basic feelings.Example:“You seem very upset.”
27 Encouraging Purpose Action Example To convey interest. To encourage the other person to keep talking.ActionDon’t agree or disagree.Use neutral words.Use varying voice intonations.Example“Can you tell me more…?”
28 Summarizing Purpose Action Example To review progress. To pull together important ideas and facts.To establish a basis for further discussion.ActionRestate major ideas expressed, including feelings.Example“These seem to be the key ideas you’ve expressed…”
29 Clarifying Purpose Action Example To help you clarify what is said. To get more information.To help the speaker see other points of view.ActionAsk questions.Restate wrong interpretation to force the speaker to explain further.Example“When did this happen?”“Do I have this right? You think he told you to give him the pencil because he doesn’t like you?”
30 Restating Purpose Action Example To show you are listening and understanding what is being said.To help the speaker see other points of view.ActionRestate basic ideas and facts.Example“So you would like your friends to include you at recess, is that right?”
31 Validating Purpose Action Example To acknowledge the worthiness of the other person.ActionAcknowledge the value of their issues and feelings.Show appreciation for their efforts and actions.Example“I truly appreciate your willingness to resolve this matter.”
32 Faults in Listening Prejudice against the Speaker External DistractionsThinking SpeedPremature Evaluation
33 Methods to Test Understanding ParrotingParaphrasingClarifying
34 What is Paraphasing?Paraphrasing is a way of presenting a text, keeping the same meaning, but using different words.
35 Why paraphrase?A direct quote tells the reader that you can find good information for your paper. A paraphrase tells the reader that you can understand and interpret the information that you read.
36 When to paraphrase: To use as an alternative to a direct quotation. - To re-write someone else’s ideas without changing the meaning.- To express someone else’s ideas in your own words.- To support claims in, or provide evidence for, your writing.
37 How to do it:Start by reading a short text and highlighting the main points as you read.- Rewrite each main point, sentence by sentence, using synonyms (words or expressions which have a similar meaning) where possible.
38 Change the sentence structure: break up a long sentence into two smaller ones; combine two short sentences and simplify their structure; change the voice (active/passive); change the order in which the ideas are presented (as long as they still make sense in a different order).- If you use any unique or specialist phrases, use quotation marks.
39 ExampleCaring is a function of the whole person in which concern for the growth and well-being of another is expressed in an integrated application of the mind, body, and spirit toward maximum positive outcomes in the one who is cared for by Nursing profession.
40 Incorrect Paraphrasing Caring involves the entire person because the development and well-being of the patient is articulated in the integrated application of the mind, body, and spirit to create the best possible outcomes for the patient by nursing.
41 Why is this paraphrase incorrect? The sentence structure remains the sameOnly a few words have been substitutedNon-technical terms remain unchanged
42 Correct paraphraseIf nurses are to provide the best possible results and development for their patients, nurses need to use their mental, physical, and spiritual capacities to care for their patients.
43 Try Paraphrasing themIn analysing the results of numerous surveys of companies' experiences of customer satisfaction programmes between 1997 and 2002, it is apparent that in the majority of cases, the negatives outweighed the positives. This is particularly marked among companies who sent customers an "off-the-shelf" survey, or one from another company. In approximately 85% of these cases, the results were considered to be unsatisfactory.
44 Here is a possible paraphrase: The majority of surveys between 1997 and 2002 reveal negative experiences of customer satisfaction programmes among companies. Of those who did not develop their own survey, 85% reported unsatisfactory experiences. (Shaw, 2002).
45 Try ParaphrasingThe importance to a company of developing its own programme to measure satisfaction cannot be overemphasised. Indeed, this seems to have been the keystone of all successful programmes.(Shaw, 2002)
46 Here is a possible paraphrase: Shaw (2002) stresses that the development of tailor-made customer satisfaction programmes is an important factor in success.
47 How to Improve Your Listening Skills Be preparedKeep Positive AttitudeListen to Understand not refuteFocus your AttentionConcentrate on ContextTake NotesCurb the impulse to InterruptSummarize, evaluate and restate
48 THE TEN COMMANDMENTS – KEITH DAVIS Stop Talking.Put The Talker At Ease.Show Him That You Want To Listen.Remove Distractions.Empathize With Him.Be Patient.Hold Your Temper.Go Easy On Arguments And Criticism.Ask Questions.Stop Talking!
50 During her troubled pregnancy Seema was regularly consulting Dr Kapoor During her troubled pregnancy Seema was regularly consulting Dr Kapoor. He frankly warned her that only one of the two - she or the baby - was likely to survive the delivery.Although this was her first pregnancy, she wanted the baby to be saved even if it led to her own death. She pleaded with Dr Kapoor and got from him a solemn promise to do so.She didn't tell her husband Manohar about this arrangement. He, however, knew that the delivery would be complicated.
51 Seema was taken to the operating theatre for an emergency Caesarean section. She was given anesthesia. During the operation Dr Kapoor was certain that he would have to ‘sacrifice’ either Seema or her baby. Although he had promised Seema that he would save the baby rather than her, Dr Kapoor checked with Manohar. He insisted that Seema be saved. He said if Seema didn't sign certain documents he would lose the right to substantial property. He offered Dr Kapoor Rs 200,000 for saving her. Dr Kapoor accepted the offer and took an advance of Rs 50,000 during the operation itself.
52 Dr Kapoor saved her; the baby died Dr Kapoor saved her; the baby died. When Seema recovered, she confronted the doctor. She wanted to know why he saved her at the expense of the baby. After some hesitation he admitted that he did it under pressure from Manohar. She probed further and discovered that Manohar was bent on saving her not because of love for her but love for money. Enraged she went straight to Manohar and, even without asking for an explanation, shot him dead. Then she returned to the hospital and shot Dr Kapoor dead.
53 Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest of them all?