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Presentation on theme: "LISTENING SKILLS."— Presentation transcript:


2 Hearing Listening The vibration of sound waves on the eardrums and the firing of electrochemical impulses in the brain. Paying close attention to, and making sense of, what we hear.

3 Definition Effective listening is listening to the words of the speaker and the meaning of the words. Active listening is a process in which the listener takes active responsibility to understand the content and feeling of what is being said and then checks with the speaker to see if he/she heard what the speaker intended to communicate.

4 Basic Communication Skills Profile
________________________________________________ Communication Order Learned Extent Used Extent Taught ____________________________________________ Listening First First Fourth Speaking Second Second Third Reading Third Third Second Writing Fourth Fourth First

5 Meaning Listening Is With The Mind Hearing With The Senses
Listening Is Conscious. An Active Process Of Eliciting Information Ideas, Attitudes And Emotions Interpersonal, Oral Exchange

6 Fallacies about Listening
Listening is not my problem! Listening and hearing are the same Good readers are good listeners Smarter people are better listeners Listening improves with age Learning not to listen Thinking about what we are going to say rather than listening to a speaker Talking when we should be listening Hearing what we expect to hear rather than what is actually said Not paying attention ( preoccupation, prejudice, self-centeredness, stero-type) Listening skills are difficult to learn

7 Purpose of Listening To gain new Information and Idea
To question and test evidence and assumptions To be inspired To improve your own communication

8 Test

9 Read all the instructions below before doing anything. 1
Read all the instructions below before doing anything. 1. Write your name in the top right corner of the paper 2. Draw five small squares in the top left corner 3. Put a circle around each square 4. Put an X on the lower left-hand corner 5. Draw a triangle around the X you have just made 6. Sign your name at the bottom of the page 7. On the back of your page multiply 70x30 8. Write the answer to the above problem adjacent to your signature 9. Check whether you have done all the above correctly Now that you have finished reading carefully, do only the first instruction.

10 Stages of the Listening Process
Hearing Focusing on the message Comprehending and interpreting Analyzing and Evaluating Responding Remembering

11 Types of Listening

12 Appreciative Listening
Listening for pleasure or enjoyment.

13 Empathic Listening Listening to provide emotional support for the speaker.

14 Comprehensive Listening
Listening to understand the message of a speaker.

15 Critical Listening Listening to evaluate a message for purposes of accepting or rejecting it.

16 Four Causes of Poor Listening
Not concentrating Listening too hard Jumping to conclusions Focusing on delivery and personal appearance

17 Spare “Brain Time” The difference between the rate at which most people talk (120 to 150 words a minute) and the rate at which the brain can process language (400 to 800 words a minute).

18 How to Become a Better Listener
Take listening seriously Resist distractions Don’t be diverted by appearance or delivery

19 How to Become a Better Listener
Focus your listening Develop note-taking skills Suspend judgment

20 Active Listening Skills
The Heart of Empathic Understanding

21 Active Listening Giving undivided attention to a speaker in a genuine effort to understand the speaker’s point of view.

22 Skills for Active Listening
Examples: Sitting forward Eye contact Nodding head BODY LANGUAGE American Student Achievement Institute

23 Skills for Active Listening
OPEN-ENDED QUESTIONS Examples: What happened after that? Who was there? What did they do? How did that work? American Student Achievement Institute

24 Skills for Active Listening
Examples: So what I hear you saying is . . . REPEAT CONTENT American Student Achievement Institute

25 Skills for Active Listening ACKNOWLEDGING FEELINGS
Examples: You’re feeling ___. It makes you (feeling) that . . . American Student Achievement Institute

26 Reflecting Purpose Action Example:
To show that you understand how the person feels. Action Reflects the speaker’s basic feelings. Example: “You seem very upset.”

27 Encouraging Purpose Action Example To convey interest.
To encourage the other person to keep talking. Action Don’t agree or disagree. Use neutral words. Use varying voice intonations. Example “Can you tell me more…?”

28 Summarizing Purpose Action Example To review progress.
To pull together important ideas and facts. To establish a basis for further discussion. Action Restate major ideas expressed, including feelings. Example “These seem to be the key ideas you’ve expressed…”

29 Clarifying Purpose Action Example To help you clarify what is said.
To get more information. To help the speaker see other points of view. Action Ask questions. Restate wrong interpretation to force the speaker to explain further. Example “When did this happen?” “Do I have this right? You think he told you to give him the pencil because he doesn’t like you?”

30 Restating Purpose Action Example
To show you are listening and understanding what is being said. To help the speaker see other points of view. Action Restate basic ideas and facts. Example “So you would like your friends to include you at recess, is that right?”

31 Validating Purpose Action Example
To acknowledge the worthiness of the other person. Action Acknowledge the value of their issues and feelings. Show appreciation for their efforts and actions. Example “I truly appreciate your willingness to resolve this matter.”

32 Faults in Listening Prejudice against the Speaker
External Distractions Thinking Speed Premature Evaluation

33 Methods to Test Understanding
Parroting Paraphrasing Clarifying

34 What is Paraphasing? Paraphrasing is a way of presenting a text, keeping the same meaning, but using different words.

35 Why paraphrase? A direct quote tells the reader that you can find good information for your paper. A paraphrase tells the reader that you can understand and interpret the information that you read.

36 When to paraphrase: To use as an alternative to a direct quotation.
- To re-write someone else’s ideas without changing the meaning. - To express someone else’s ideas in your own words. - To support claims in, or provide evidence for, your writing.

37 How to do it: Start by reading a short text and highlighting the main points as you read. - Rewrite each main point, sentence by sentence, using synonyms (words or expressions which have a similar meaning) where possible.

38 Change the sentence structure: break up a long sentence into two smaller ones; combine two short sentences and simplify their structure; change the voice (active/passive); change the order in which the ideas are presented (as long as they still make sense in a different order). - If you use any unique or specialist phrases, use quotation marks.

39 Example Caring is a function of the whole person in which concern for the growth and well-being of another is expressed in an integrated application of the mind, body, and spirit toward maximum positive outcomes in the one who is cared for by Nursing profession.

40 Incorrect Paraphrasing
Caring involves the entire person because the development and well-being of the patient is articulated in the integrated application of the mind, body, and spirit to create the best possible outcomes for the patient by nursing.

41 Why is this paraphrase incorrect?
The sentence structure remains the same Only a few words have been substituted Non-technical terms remain unchanged

42 Correct paraphrase If nurses are to provide the best possible results and development for their patients, nurses need to use their mental, physical, and spiritual capacities to care for their patients.

43 Try Paraphrasing them In analysing the results of numerous surveys of companies' experiences of customer satisfaction programmes between 1997 and 2002, it is apparent that in the majority of cases, the negatives outweighed the positives. This is particularly marked among companies who sent customers an "off-the-shelf" survey, or one from another company. In approximately 85% of these cases, the results were considered to be unsatisfactory.

44 Here is a possible paraphrase:
The majority of surveys between 1997 and 2002 reveal negative experiences of customer satisfaction programmes among companies. Of those who did not develop their own survey, 85% reported unsatisfactory experiences. (Shaw, 2002).

45 Try Paraphrasing The importance to a company of developing its own programme to measure satisfaction cannot be overemphasised. Indeed, this seems to have been the keystone of all successful programmes.(Shaw, 2002)

46 Here is a possible paraphrase:
Shaw (2002) stresses that the development of tailor-made customer satisfaction programmes is an important factor in success.

47 How to Improve Your Listening Skills
Be prepared Keep Positive Attitude Listen to Understand not refute Focus your Attention Concentrate on Context Take Notes Curb the impulse to Interrupt Summarize, evaluate and restate

Stop Talking. Put The Talker At Ease. Show Him That You Want To Listen. Remove Distractions. Empathize With Him. Be Patient. Hold Your Temper. Go Easy On Arguments And Criticism. Ask Questions. Stop Talking!

49 Mirror, mirror, on the wall…

50 During her troubled pregnancy Seema was regularly consulting Dr Kapoor
During her troubled pregnancy Seema was regularly consulting Dr Kapoor. He frankly warned her that only one of the two - she or the baby - was likely to survive the delivery. Although this was her first pregnancy, she wanted the baby to be saved even if it led to her own death. She pleaded with Dr Kapoor and got from him a solemn promise to do so. She didn't tell her husband Manohar about this arrangement. He, however, knew that the delivery would be complicated.

51 Seema was taken to the operating theatre for an emergency Caesarean section. She was given anesthesia. During the operation Dr Kapoor was certain that he would have to ‘sacrifice’ either Seema or her baby. Although he had promised Seema that he would save the baby rather than her, Dr Kapoor checked with Manohar. He insisted that Seema be saved. He said if Seema didn't sign certain documents he would lose the right to substantial property. He offered Dr Kapoor Rs 200,000 for saving her. Dr Kapoor accepted the offer and took an advance of Rs 50,000 during the operation itself.

52 Dr Kapoor saved her; the baby died
Dr Kapoor saved her; the baby died. When Seema recovered, she confronted the doctor. She wanted to know why he saved her at the expense of the baby. After some hesitation he admitted that he did it under pressure from Manohar. She probed further and discovered that Manohar was bent on saving her not because of love for her but love for money. Enraged she went straight to Manohar and, even without asking for an explanation, shot him dead. Then she returned to the hospital and shot Dr Kapoor dead.

53 Mirror, mirror on the wall, who is the fairest of them all?

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