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Documentation for Research Papers Ms. Lowder English II.

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1 Documentation for Research Papers Ms. Lowder English II

2 Some things to remember Conduct research first Then type rough draft Do not add extra space between paragraphs. Indent paragraphs by three spaces. Do not use the words “I, me, my, our, us, we” in your paper. It should be more formal than that.

3 MLA Documentation Used in humanities courses -- English, religion, art, theater, speech, drama, and some history Also called in-text or parenthetical documentation Eliminates the need for footnotes and allows the reader to see source information within text of paper

4 MLA Documentation Every time you use a quote or paraphrase in your paper, you will need to make sure you also 1. Tag it 2. Cite it 3. Include it on your works cited page Missing any of these steps will result in a failing paper grade.

5 Quotes Anytime you copy information down word for word from another source, that is a quote A quote does NOT have to be something someone said in another text, i.e. something with quotes around it already Quotes are usually short – 1 to 2 sentences in length, or even partial sentences You place quotation marks around a quote once you put it in your paper, and you MUST cite it in your paper

6 Paraphrase When you use someone else’s idea but put it in your own words, that’s a paraphrase. Paraphrases are generally short – 1 to 2 sentences in length or even parts of sentences. Paraphrases do NOT need quotation marks but MUST be cited in your paper.

7 Summary A summary is an extended paraphrase. It occurs when you paraphrase a larger amount of text and make it more concise as you put it in your own words. Summaries do not need quotation marks, but they do need to be cited in your paper.

8 Tagging Tags alert the reader that a quote or paraphrase is about to occur or has just occurred, depending on the location of the tag. Tags help your writing flow and prevent choppiness when incorporating quotes and paraphrases.

9 Tagging Examples - Website According to John Bell, “the death penalty is inhumane and unconstitutional” (“Death to Death”). The tag is at the beginning and is the author’s name; the citation is at the end and is the article name. “The death penalty is inhumane and unconstitutional,” suggests John Bell (“Death to Death”). Here, the quote comes first, then the tag, then the citation. Notice the location of the comma and the period.

10 Tagging Examples – Books/Mags Politician John Bell argues that “the death penalty is inhumane and unconstitutional” (7). In this example, I tag the quote with the author’s name and then only have to put the page number of the quote in the citation. This only works assuming I have one author named John Bell and only one work by him. Another version would be- Politician John Bell argues that “the death penalty is inhumane and unconstitutional” (Death Matters, 7). This would be necessary if he had multiple works I was using in my paper.

11 Tagging Continued If you don’t know the author’s name, or to add variety to your tagging methods, you may also do this: “Death to Death” asserts that “the death penalty is inhumane and unconstitutional” ( In this case, I’ve tagged the quote with the article name and used the website address as my citation. This is not ideal; try to avoid using a url in your citation if at all possible.

12 Tagging continued In your paper, you should try to tag your quotes and paraphrases in a variety of ways. Alternate tagging with the author’s name and the article name. Also alternate placing your tagging information at the beginning and end of your sentences. Finally, change the wording of your tagging whenever possible.

13 What should YOU do? Your final paper will need 7 sources cited within the text. These citations should be a combination of quotes, paraphrases, and summaries. Note that you may cite a particular source more than once, but you must cite 7 different sources to earn a passing grade. One of the five sources must be a NON- INTERNET source (book, magazine, newspaper, encyclopedia, interview of an expert, etc.)

14 Continued The rule of 2/3, 1/3 applies to this paper. No more than 1/3 of the paper information should be from other sources; the majority of the opinions and ideas should come from you. Make sure your sources are credible and worthy of use. Read p.464-479 in your language book to help you further.

15 Due Date I will be checking your rough drafts on Thursday 1/17/13. These rough drafts should be typed, with several sources/citations included, and should be 2 or more pages in length for full credit. Remember, you should double space with 1” margins and size 10 or 12 font. Your final copy should be 5 or more typed pages plus a works cited page and is due on Friday, February 1, 2013.

16 Works Cited Page The works cited page is a listing of the sources you USED in your paper. It is NOT a list of all sources you looked at but decided not to use – that’s a bibliography. Your works cited page must have a minimum of 5 entries on it because you must use at least 5 different sources in your paper. Your language book has good information on this p.662-669

17 Format of Works Cited Page Works Cited is centered and placed at the top as a title. Your works cited page must have a minimum of five entries. Each entry is double-spaced from the next. If an entry continues onto a second line, that entry is single-spaced and the second line is indented.

18 Format cont’d. No bullets or numbers are used. The entries are listed in alphabetical order by the author’s last name or the title of the work if the author is unknown. The first line of each entry begins at the left hand margin.

19 Website Citation on Works Cited Page Greenhouse, Linda. “Selective Empathy.” Death Penalty Information Center. 3 December 2009. 17 March This is an example of an online source with an author.

20 Website Citation on Works Cited Page Example of a website without an author listed. “The Death Penalty Will Only Cause Me More Pain.” Death Penalty Home Page. 19 March 2010. <www.death>.

21 Works Cited Format Cont’d Use the pages I listed from your language book for information about how to cite books, magazines, interviews, etc.

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