Presentation on theme: "English 12. Taking Notes and Annotating Record enough information to help you recall the major points of the source Put the information in the form in."— Presentation transcript:
Taking Notes and Annotating Record enough information to help you recall the major points of the source Put the information in the form in which you are most likely to incorporate it into your research essay Note all the information you will need to cite the source accurately
Elements of an accurate note Subject heading Identify the source Exact page references Indicate whether note is a summary, paraphrase or quotation
Quoting Uses a source’s exact words Use it when: The wording is so memorable or expresses a point so well that you cannot improve or shorten it without weakening it When the author is a respected authority When the author challenges or disagrees profoundly with others in the field Use quotes sparingly
Quoting accurately Copy quotations carefully, with punctuation, capitalization, and spelling exactly as in the original. Enclose the quotation in quotation marks; don’t rely on your memory to distinguish your own words from those of the source Use square brackets if you introduce words of your own or make changes Use ellipses if you omit words If you later incorporate the quotation into your research essay, copy it from the note precisely, including brackets and ellipses Record the author’s name, shortened title, and page number on which the quotation appeared. Make sure you have a corresponding working-bibliography entry with complete source information Label the note with a subject heading, and identify it as a quote.
Paraphrasing States all relevant information in your own words and sentence structures, but without comment or elaboration. Use when the main points of the passage, their order, and some details are important but the particular wording is not. Unlike a summary, a paraphrase restates all the main points, in the same order, often in the same number of words.
Paraphrase without plagiarizing Do not simply substitute synonyms Do not imitate an author’s style If you wish to cite some of the author’s words in a paraphrase, use quotation marks.
Original Language play, the arguments suggest, will help the development of pronunciation ability through its focus on the properties of sounds and sound contrasts, such as rhyming. Playing with word endings and decoding the syntax of riddles will help the acquisition of grammar. Readiness to play with words and names, to exchange puns and to engage in nonsense talk, promotes links with semantic development. The kinds of dialogue interaction illustrated above are likely to have consequences for the development of conversational skills. And language play, but its nature, also contributes greatly to what in recent years has been called metalinguistic awareness, which is turning out to be of critical importance in the development of language skills in general and of literacy skills in particular. --David Crystal, Language Play (180)
Unacceptable paraphrase: Straying from the author’s ideas Crystal argues that playing with language – creating rhymes, figuring out how riddles work, making puns, playing with names, using invented words, and so on – helps children figure out a great deal about language, from the basics of pronunciation and grammar to how to carry on a conversation. Increasing their understanding of how language works in turn helps them become more interested in learning new languages and in pursuing education (180).
Unacceptable paraphrase: using the author’s words Crystal suggests that language play, including rhyme, helps children improve pronunciation ability, that looking at word endings and decoding the syntax of riddles allows them to understand grammar, and that other kinds of dialogue interaction teach conversation. Overall, language play may be of critical importance in the development of language and literacy skills (180).
Unacceptable paraphrase: using the author’s sentence structures Language play, Crystal suggests, will improve pronunciation by zeroing in on sounds such as rhymes. Having fun with word endings and analyzing riddle structure will help a person acquire grammar. Being prepared to play with language, to use puns and talk nonsense, improves the ability to use semantics. These playful methods of communication are likely to influence a person’s ability to talk to others. And language play inherently adds enormously to what has recently been known as metalinguistic awareness, a concept of great magnitude in developing speech abilities generally and literacy abilities particularly (180).
Acceptable paraphrase: in the student writer’s own words Crystal argues that playing with language – creating rhymes, figuring out riddles, making puns, playing with names, using invented words, and so on – helps children figure out a great deal, from the basics of pronunciation and grammar to how to carry on a conversation. This kind of play allows children to understand the overall concept of how language works, a concept that is key to learning to use – and read – language effectively (180).
Summarizing Significantly shortened version of a passage or even a whole chapter or work that captures main ideas in your own words. Just enough information for main points.
Summarizing accurately Include just enough information to recount the main points you want to cite. Usually shorter than the original. Use your own words. If you use language from the original, use quotation marks. Record the author, shortened title, and page numbers Make sure you have a corresponding working- bibliography entry