Philosophers Search for Truth Rise of Great Philosophers – Thinkers emerge who are called “lovers of wisdom.” This is from the Greek words: phileo-to love sophia—wisdom – Philosophers believe the universe is subject to absolute and unchanging laws. – People could understand these laws through logic and reason. Questions 1: In your own words, what do philosophers believe?
Philosophers Search for Truth The Sophists – The word means “the wisest,” so they were proud of their supposed philosophical knowledge. – They claimed they could find the answers to all questions. – They used rhetoric to win arguments. – They often charged fees for teaching their skills and for arguing for others. They might be considered a type of lawyer of the time. – Sophist philosopher Protogoras questions the existence of Greek gods. Question2: Why was rhetoric important to Sophists? (pg 221)
Philosophers Search for Truth Socrates – He believes in questioning and teaches through the method of questioning. – He is believed to have said “The unexamined life is not worth living.” – He is convicted of “corrupting the youth of Athens and sentenced to death in 399 B.C. – He dies by drinking hemlock, a slow acting poison.
Socrates Socrates was a philosopher of Ancient Greece. A philosopher is someone who tries to explain the nature of life. Socrates taught by by asking questions. This method of questioning is still called the Socratic method. Question 3: What is so amazing about Socrates death? (textbook page 222)
Philosophers Search for Truth Plato – He is a student of Socrates. – He writes The Republic, about an ideal society ruled by Philosopher-Kings – His writings dominate European philosophy for 1,500 years.
Plato Plato was a student of Socrates. He started a school called The Academy. Plato’s writing took the form of a dialogue between teacher and student. Question 4: What did Plato think of Women? (textbook page 222)
Philosophers Search for Truth Aristotle – He was a student of Plato. – He uses rules of logic for argument. – His work provides the basis for scientific method, still used today. – He tutors 13-year-old prince who becomes Alexander the Great
Aristotle Aristotle was another Greek philosopher and student of Plato. He wrote about science, art, law, poetry, and government. Question 5: What 3 types of government did Aristotle c write about in Politics? (textbook page 223-4)