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Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle

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1 Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle
Greek Philosophy Socrates, Plato, & Aristotle

2 Philosophy Philosophy  love of wisdom
Early Greek philosophers were concerned with the development of logic and reasoning, and how divine forces worked

3 Socrates (469-399 B.C.) “The unexamined life is not worth living.”
Beliefs We contain all the knowledge of the world in our souls Reincarnation We lose touch with that knowledge after every rebirth We DO NOT learn new things, but are reminded of what we already know

4 Socrates (469-399 B.C.) Beliefs
Good is not good because the gods say so Good is measured by practical usefulness Don’t need religious texts to tell us right from wrong Monotheistic Did not believe in the multitude of Greek gods & goddesses Anti-authority Wanted students to question society

5 Socrates (469-399 B.C.) Legacy The Socratic Method Death
Teaching by using question-and-answer format to lead pupils to understanding concepts through reasoning Let students learn for themselves Leads to modern school system Death Put on trial & convicted by an Athenian jury of corrupting the youth of Athens Forced to drink hemlock and commit suicide

6 Considered the greatest philosopher in Western Civilization
Plato (437?-347 BC) “Dictatorship naturally arises out of democracy, and the most aggravated form of tyranny and slavery out of the most extreme liberty.” Socrates’ student Wrote down all of Socrates beliefs Considered the greatest philosopher in Western Civilization

7 Plato (437?-347 BC) Beliefs How do we know what’s real? The Republic
Earth is not real Must live in a rational state The higher world of eternity is real The Republic Does not trust democracy Offers his ideal state Philosopher kings – driven by wisdom Warriors – provide courage Peasants – driven by desire, but would produce Argued against materialism

8 Plato (437?-347 BC) Beliefs Men and women should be educated
They should have equal access to all positions Three Levels of Pleasure Physical  i.e. sex Sensual  i.e. admiring beauty or enjoying relationship in marriage Ideal  intellectual love; connecting with another mind No physicality to soil the relationship Platonic love

9 Plato (437?-347 BC) Beliefs God is perfect
We must strive to resemble God We move closer to God via reincarnation He created the world out of raw materials Sin is people being ignorant Do not punish, but reform sinners via education

10 “The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal.”
Aristotle ( B.C.) “The worst form of inequality is to try to make unequal things equal.” Prized student of Plato Teacher of Alexander the Great Lyceum Built school of philosophy Beautiful grounds with covered walkways Traditional college campuses based on the Lyceum

11 Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Beliefs Three Souls Three forms of government
Plant Soul  essence of nutrition Animal Soul  essence of pleasure, pain, & desire Human Soul  essence of reasoning People learn through reasoning Three forms of government Monarchy Negative  could turn into tyranny Aristocracy Negative  could turn into an oligarchy Constitutional Monarchy Negative  could turn into anarchy

12 Aristotle (384-322 B.C.) Legacy System of Classification
The ologies: biology, zoology, etc. Governments: democracies, oligarchies, tyrannies Inventor of modern logic p v q Wrote the first book on psychology

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