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Preventing & Responding to Problem Behavior: Review of Best Practice

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Presentation on theme: "Preventing & Responding to Problem Behavior: Review of Best Practice"— Presentation transcript:

1 Preventing & Responding to Problem Behavior: Review of Best Practice
Brandi Simonsen & George Sugai Center on Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports University of Connecticut January 21, 2009

2 Practices & systems for responding to norm violating problem behavior.
PURPOSE Practices & systems for responding to norm violating problem behavior. Discipline Best Practices, Emphases, & Considerations Understanding & Managing Escalations Action Planning

3 Behavior Situations “Jaime’s all over the place. He touches other kids stuff, disrupts their concentration, & always getting in fights. I don’t know what to do with him!” “What can I do to reduce # of kids who come to class late?” “A few kids in my 5th period class never raise their hands when they have a question…they blurt out.” “When I tell Sasha what to do, I’m ignored. When I repeat, I’m ignored again. So, I repeat again & tell her that if she doesn’t answer, I’m sending her to the office. She gets up & leaves! I want compliance.” “Every other word out of Margindale’s mouth is sexually or culturally inappropriate….how do I get rid of her comments?”

4 Discussion Pre-requisites
School-wide in place w/ integrity Team meets at least monthly Behavioral capacity in school >80% staff participation Active administrator participation

5 Supporting Social Competence &
Integrated Elements Supporting Social Competence & Academic Achievement OUTCOMES Supporting Decision Making Supporting Staff Behavior DATA SYSTEMS SWPBS is also not just about “behavior management” It’s about doing business in ways where there is equal and integrated emphasis on 4 key elements: Data = Making decisions based on real and measurable data or information Outcomes = Selecting educationally important and measurable goals and objectives that are based on the data Practices = Selecting evidence-based behavioral interventions that have proved to achieve those outcomes Systems = Arranging teaching and learning environments so these practices can be implemented in relevant, efficient, and accurate ways. PRACTICES Supporting Student Behavior

6 School-wide Classroom Family Non-classroom Student Evidence-based
SWPBS Practices School-wide Classroom Family Non-classroom Smallest # Evidence-based Biggest, durable effect SWPBS emphasizes doing the smallest number of the most effective behavioral interventions. These interventions are organized into five main areas. School leadership teams usually start with an action plan that focuses on the establishment of a school-wide system, and quickly enhance their action plan to include nonclassroom, classroom, and individual student behavioral interventions. Student

SCHOOL-WIDE Leadership team Behavior purpose statement Set of positive expectations & behaviors Procedures for teaching SW & classroom- wide expected behavior Continuum of procedures for encouraging expected behavior Continuum of procedures for discouraging rule violations Procedures for on-going data-based monitoring & evaluation EVIDENCE- BASED INTERVENTION PRACTICES CLASSROOM All school-wide Maximum structure & predictability in routines & environment Positively stated expectations posted, taught, reviewed, prompted, & supervised. Maximum engagement through high rates of opportunities to respond, delivery of evidence- based instructional curriculum & practices Continuum of strategies to acknowledge displays of appropriate behavior. Continuum of strategies for responding to inappropriate behavior. INDIVIDUAL STUDENT Behavioral competence at school & district levels Function-based behavior support planning Team- & data-based decision making Comprehensive person-centered planning & wraparound processes Targeted social skills & self-management instruction Individualized instructional & curricular accommodations NONCLASSROOM Positive expectations & routines taught & encouraged Active supervision by all staff (Scan, move, interact) Precorrections & reminders Positive reinforcement FAMILY ENGAGEMENT Continuum of positive behavior support for all families Frequent, regular positive contacts, communications, & acknowledgements Formal & active participation & involvement as equal partner Access to system of integrated school & community resources The most important characteristic is the relatively small number of evidence-based behavioral interventions included in each of the six areas.

8 ALL SOME FEW Tertiary Prevention: Specialized CONTINUUM OF
Individualized Systems for Students with High-Risk Behavior CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE INSTRUCTIONAL & POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT FEW ~5% Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior ~15% SOME Primary Prevention: School-/Classroom- Wide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings SWPBS organizes its behavioral interventions along a continuum of behavior support. Like the logic of “response to intervention” (RtI), SWPBS starts by providing the most appropriate and effective behavioral interventions for all students (Primary), and then provides more specialized and intensive interventions for those students whose behaviors do not respond (secondary/tertiary). ALL ~80% of Students

IMPLEMENTATION W/ FIDELITY CONTINUUM OF EVIDENCE-BASED INTERVENTIONS STUDENT PERFORMANCE CONTINUOUS PROGRESS MONITORING DATA-BASED DECISION MAKING & PROBLEM SOLVING UNIVERSAL SCREENING RtI The SWPBS approach has many of the same implementation elements as the “Response to Intervention” framework that is being stressed nationally. Implementation of SWPBS and RtI should be integrated rather than treated as separate efforts

10 RTI Continuum of Support for ALL Universal Targeted Intensive Few Some

11 Discipline Handout Steps, policies, or actions to support teaching & learning environments so likelihood of student academic & social success is promoted Increases in likelihood of occurrences of socially appropriate behavior Decreases in likelihood of occurrences of problem violating behavior Decreases in intensity, frequency, & duration of severe problem behavior

12 Discipline Emphases Teaching & reinforcing context-appropriate social behaviors or skills. Removing antecedent factors that trigger occurrences of problem behavior. Adding antecedent factors that trigger occurrences of context appropriate social skills. Removing consequence factors that maintain (function) occurrences of problem behaviors. Adding consequence factors that maintain occurrences of context appropriate social behaviors.

13 REMEMBER #1 SW discipline is for 80%
SW discipline is screener for non-responders By definition, behaviors of “non-responders” are slow to change & require specialized local supports SW discipline is preventive SW discipline is balanced response for problem & expected behavior “Getting tougher” is ineffective for non-responders

14 1. Appropriate Behavior Look continuously for appropriate behavior
Label appropriate behavior Appropriate positive reinforcement

15 2. Prompts for desired behavior
Use effective signal/prompt Label display of expected behavior

16 3. Minor, non-interfering problem behavior
Remove attention Wait for desired behavior, then reinforce Positively reinforce other-student displays of desired behavior Prompt expected behavior Use positive reinforcement

17 4. Minor, interfering problem behavior
Signal error or problem behavior Remind ask student for expected behavior Display/practice expected behavior Positively reinforce 1 & 2

18 5. Repeated minor problem behavior
Identify context/setting when problem behavior likely Conduct FBA Develop BIP 1 & 2

19 6. Classroom managed major
Develop precorrection plan Teach/practice desired behavior Conduct FBA 1 & 2

20 PRECORRECTION Identify & analyze setting in which problem behavior most likely Triggers & function Expected & acceptable behaviors BEFORE Modify setting Check-in w/ student (Re)teach & remind Reinforce Re-direct DURING Monitor & reinforce Re-direct AFTER Reinforce Revise, (re)teach, remind

21 7. Office managed problem behavior
Follow school & district disciplinary procedures 1 & 2

22 REMEMBER #2 Be business like; use “teaching” voice
Stick to protocols, procedures, agreements Work as team w/ non-responders Use data for decisions Anticipate & pre-correct Reinforce at high rates, continuously

TERTIARY PREVENTION TERTIARY PREVENTION Function-based support Wraparound Person-centered planning ~5% ~15% SECONDARY PREVENTION SECONDARY PREVENTION Check in/out Targeted social skills instruction Peer-based supports Social skills club PRIMARY PREVENTION Teach SW expectations Proactive SW discipline Positive reinforcement Effective instruction Parent engagement PRIMARY PREVENTION ~80% of Students

24 Identify existing practices by tier Specify outcome for each effort
ESTABLISHING A CONTINUUM of SWPBS TERTIARY PREVENTION Function-based support Wraparound/PCP Specially designed instruction Audit Identify existing practices by tier Specify outcome for each effort Evaluate implementation accuracy & outcome effectiveness Eliminate/integrate based on outcomes Establish decision rules (RtI) ~5% ~15% SECONDARY PREVENTION Check in/out Targeted social skills instruction Peer-based supports Social skills club PRIMARY PREVENTION Teach & encourage positive SW expectations Proactive SW discipline Effective instruction Parent engagement ~80% of Students

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