2 A Continuum of Sexual Orientations Terminologyhomosexual orientation: primary erotic psychological emotional and social orientation is to same sexgay maleslesbian females
3 A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont.) Terminologybisexual orientation: attraction to both same- & opposite sex partnersheterosexual orientation: attraction to opposite sex partner (aka straight)
4 A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont.) Kinsey's 7-point continuummen are more likely to fall at the extremesmay depend on how question is asked
5 A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont.) Fig Kinsey’s continuum of sexual orientation (adapted from Kinsey et al., 1948, p. 638).
6 A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont.) Bisexualitycontext matters more than contactcategories: real, transitory, transitional, or denial of gayness
10 Transitory Orientation A temporary involvement by people who are actually heterosexual or homosexual
11 Transitory Orientation A temporary involvement by people who are actually heterosexual or homosexualExamples: single-sex boarding schools, prisonsThe people involved consider themselves heterosexual even when involved in same-sex behavior, and they resume heterosexual relationships when opportunities present themselves again.Some prostitutes and male hustlers may do business with either sex and yet be exclusively heterosexual or queer in their personal lives.
13 Transitional Orientation A person is changing from one orientation to another
14 Transitional Orientation A person is changing from one orientation to anotherExample: A man who has been married with children for many years in an effort to fit in with social norms. He then meets a male co-worker and decides to leave his wife for him.The transition from bisexuality to homosexuality may be most common during adolescence (Social pressures to conform may have one identify initially as bisexual. As one grows more comfortable with oneself, may accept orientation as completely homosexual).
16 Asexuality Feeling no sexual attraction to either sex Is a sexual orientation NOT a choiceAccording to a study in Britain: 1% of individuals are asexualPossible Factors:Women more than menLate menstruationLower education level and socioeconomic statusShort statue and health problems
17 A Continuum of Sexual Orientations (cont.) Table 10.1 Who’s Straight, Gay or Bi? How Do You Measure?
18 What Determines Sexual Orientation? Psychosocial Theories“By Default” TheoryThe Seduction MythFreud’s Theory
22 The “By Default” MythUnhappy heterosexual experiences cause a person to become homosexual.“All a lesbian needs is a good lay” or “He just needs to find the right woman” reflect that homosexuality is a lack of positive heterosexual experience.Contrary Evidence?
24 The Seduction MythThe belief that young women and men become homosexual because they have been seduced by older homosexual people or because they have “caught” it from someone else – particularly a well-liked and respected teacher who is homosexual.Contrary Evidence?
26 Freud’s TheoryPsychoanalysis: child’s relationship with primary caregivers is primarily responsible for adult’s life.In “normal development” we all pass through “homoerotic” phase.Boys could become fixated at this homosexual phase if they had a poor relationship with their father and an overly close relationship with their mother.Girls could become lesbians if they had poor relationships with their mothers and overly close relationships with their fathers.Contrary Evidence?
27 What Determines Sexual Orientation? (cont.) The influence of choicemay be more important for women than menmen are more likely to be categorical in sexual orientation
28 What Determines Sexual Orientation? (cont.) Biological theoriesadult hormone levels do not differprenatal hormone levelsRelationship between index and ring finger lengthcorrelation of handedness with homosexualityHomosexuals have 39% greater chance of being left handed than heterosexualsbirth order and sex of siblingsHomosexual men have more older brothers than heterosexual men
29 What Determines Sexual Orientation? (cont.) Genetic factorshomosexuality strongly familialidentical twins > than fraternal twins, but problems with volunteer biasgenetic marker research is ongoinggender nonconformity?
31 Gender NonconformityShows link between lack of conformity to stereotypical masculine and feminine behaviors and homosexuality.Research shows homosexuals experienced greater gender nonconformity than heterosexuals.
32 What Determines Sexual Orientation? (cont.) Implications if biology is destinymay result in more acceptancegenetic engineering, tolerance for “defective” orientation, and intolerance for behavioral choices
33 Societal Attitudes Cross-cultural attitudes vary greatly Greece, Native America & CubaTable 10.2 Fourteen countries with National Laws that Protect Gays, Lesbians and Bisexuals from Discrimination.
34 Societal Attitudes (cont.) Early to mid-1900s societal shift: from sinner to sickness1973 APA removed homosexuality from list of mental disorders
35 Societal Attitudes (cont.) Homophobiaanti-homosexual attitudes, irrational fears or self-loathingmay legitimize hate crimes directed at gaysHate Crimes Statistics Actcauses of homophobia and hate crimesLack of acceptanceTraditional gender role stereotypesExtreme manifestation of cultural normsDenial of homosexual feelings
36 Societal Attitudes (cont.) Fig Hate-crime laws expand across the nation.
37 Lifestyles Homosexual “lifestyle” is as varied as heterosexual Coming outself-acknowledgment of orientationself-acceptance of orientation
38 Lifestyles (cont.)Fig Mean Age of Lesbian Identity Developmental Events by Age Group.
39 Lifestyles (cont.) Disclosure passing - risks & benefits telling family can be most difficultPFLAG (Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays), has over 400 chapters in U.S. to help parents and others develop understanding, acceptance and support.double minority: homosexuality & ethnicityinvolvement in the gay community
40 Lifestyles (cont.)Table 10.4 When did You Know? (When Gay or Bisexual College Students Say They Became Aware of Their Sexual Orientation)
41 Lifestyles (cont.) Family life variations: gay couple, gay couple with children, single gay with childrennew reproductive technologieschildren raised by gays do not differ from those raised by straights
42 The Gay Rights Movement Began in 1969 with the Stonewall incidentGoalsdecriminalization of private sexual behaviorend discrimination against homosexuals