2 The Four Areas of Powers Military PowersFiscal PowersTrade RegulationMiscellaneous Powers
3 Fiscal PowersCollecting and Levying TaxesBorrowing MoneyCoining MoneyPunishing Counterfeiters
4 Military PowersEstablishing a military forceOrganizing and arming the militaryEstablishing Military LawDeclare War
5 Trade RegulationRegulate Interstate Commerce (All commerce now considered Interstate)Cannot make laws that favor one state over another when it comes to trade
6 Miscellaneous Powers Establishing weights and measures Rules of citizenshipMaintaining post officeProtecting intellectual propertyGovern Washington D.C.Establish Federal Courts
7 Differences Between House and Senate House of RepresentativesAreaSenate435 membersSize100 members2 year termsTerm Length6 year termsDebate is limitedAmendments are limitedRulesUnlimited DebateOpen Amendment ProcessNarrow(District)Constituency(Who They Represent)Broad(Whole State)High LevelPartisanship(Party Unity and Loyalty)More IndependentLowUnless controversialMedia AttentionGreaterGenerate Revenue BillsImpeach OfficialsPowersAppointment ConfirmationTry Impeachment Hearings
8 Rules Differences Unlimited Debate in Senate Leads to a process known as the “Filibuster”A Filibuster is when an individual or a group of Senators attempt to keep debate alive on a bill they know they will lose.
10 How to Stop a Filibuster “Cloture” must be established.“Cloture” brings all debate to a close and forces a vote to take placeProblem? It takes 60 votes to bring about cloture.Impact of this is…..Even though a group holds a minority in the Senate it can still block the passage of a bill
11 The Committee SystemTake into account all the areas the Legislative Branch must act on…..Would it be possible for a person to have the depth of knowledge to make reasonable, intelligent decisions on all of these areas?Due to this the Legislative Branch has organized itself into Committees that specialize in different areas of policyCommittees are mixed between both parties, with the majority party in the Legislative body having more members per committee
12 Types of CommitteesStanding Committees: Committees that are permanent parts of Congress.Select Committees: Committees assembled for a specific period of time to accomplish a specific task (Select Committee on Energy Independence and Global Warming)Joint Committees: Committees put together that consist of members of both the House and Senate* Conference Committee: A special joint committee put together to hammer out differences between bills passed by the House and the Senate
13 HOUSE COMMITTEESSENATE COMMITTEESAgricultureAgriculture, Nutrition, and ForestryAppropriationsArmed ServicesBanking and Financial ServiceBanking, Housing, and Urban AffairsBudgetCommerceCommerce, Science, and TransportationEducation and the WorkforceEnergy and Natural ResourcesGovernment ReformEnvironment and Public WorksHouse AdministrationFinanceInternational RelationsForeign RelationsJudiciaryGovernmental AffairsResourcesHealth, Education, Labor, and PensionsRulesIndian AffairsScienceSmall BusinessRules and AdministrationStandards of Official ConductTransportation and InfrastructureVeterans AffairsWays and Means
14 Roles of Committees Consider Bills/Legislative Proposals Before bills are debated by the full body, they are studied and “marked up” in committee. The committee “reports” it out to the full House or Senate for a vote.94% of all bills DIE in committeeConduct InvestigationsThey look into areas of “concern” that fall under their area of expertise (MLB Steroid Hearings)Oversight of Executive BranchThey investigate the operations and actions of Executive Branch Agencies (“Fast and Furious”, “9/11 commission”)
15 Organization of Senate Vice President of the United StatesVice President of the United StatesSymbolic “President” of the Senate. Only votes in case of tie.President Pro TemporePresident Pro TemporeCalled the President Pro Temp. Really only starts and ends meetings. No real power. Most senior member of the majority partySenate Majority LeaderSenate Majority LeaderElected by their fellow party members. Is the leader of the party and keeps them focused on the agenda set by the party. Takes blame for defeats in the SenateSenate Minority LeaderElected by their fellow party members. Is the leader of the party and keeps them focused on the agenda set by the party. Takes blame for defeats in the SenateSenate Minority LeaderSenate Majority WhipElected by their fellow party members. Charged with keeping count of votes and influencing members.Senate Majority WhipSenate Minority WhipSenate Minority WhipElected by their fellow party members. Charged with keeping count of votes and influencing members.Democratic Steering CommitteeCommittee in charge of organizing committee assignmentsRepublican Committee on CommitteesCommittee in charge of organizing committee assignments
17 Organization of the House of Representatives Speaker of the HouseSpeaker of the HouseElected by the majority party. Has much more control over the House than the Senate leadership has.Decides who gets a chance to speak on the floorRules on motions made from the floorInfluences which Committee a bill is referred toInfluences the calendar and which bills are voted uponAppoints members of special and select committeesHouse Majority LeaderHouse Majority LeaderElected by their fellow party members. Has less power than the same position in the Senate due to Speaker’s roleHouse Minority LeaderElected by their fellow party members. Is the leader of the party and keeps them focused on the agenda set by the party. Takes blame for defeats in the HouseHouse Minority LeaderHouse Majority WhipHouse Majority WhipElected by their fellow party members. Charged with keeping count of votes and influencing members.House Minority WhipElected by their fellow party members. Charged with keeping count of votes and influencing members.House Minority WhipRepublican Committee on CommitteesCommittee in charge of organizing committee assignmentsRepublican Committee on CommitteesDemocratic Steering and Policy CommitteeChaired by party leadership. In charge of setting legislative agenda and committee assignmentsRepublican Policy CommitteeSets legislative agenda and schedules.