Match Up the opinions of the “Big Three” in your jotters.
War In France 300,000 Homes Destroyed 1,600km Railway Destroyed 500,000 Cows taken 6,000 Factories gutted 1600km Coal-mining Galleries destroyed 500,000 Sheep Taken 250million Cubic metres Of trenches To fill 320,000km Barbed wire to pull up 300,000 Donkeys and Mules taken 1,000 Bridges Blown up 2,000 Breweries destroyed
Public Opinion France – Suffered too much to allow the Germans to be forgiven Britain – Also suffered too much to allow the German to be forgiven USA – Had not suffered as they joined the war late and had small causalities and no fighting took place in USA British & French believed that GERMANY STARTED THE WAR. WANTED REVENGE
Cost of the War. What the Government spent Germany £8,394 Million Austria-Hungary £4,563 Million Turkey and Bulgaria £499 Million Russia £5,021 Million Great Britain £7,852 Million France £5,392 Million
Military Loss of Life Germany 2,000,000 Russia 1,700,000 France 1,358,000 Austria 1,100,000 Great Britain 761,213 Italy 460,000 Turkey 375,000 British Empire 251,900 USA 114,095
Punishment Clemenceau’s victory at the peace talks. The American public opinion did not reflect President Wilson. Public opinion would not accept a peace that did not curb German power. The dictated treaty reflected the views of Clemenceau.
The Terms of the Treaty 7 th May 1919 The Germans expected a ‘fair’ treaty and were shocked by the terms of the treaty. However they were in no position to fight so were forced to sign the treaty. The Treaty contained over 200 clauses
Blame Germany had to accept the Blame for starting the war (Clause 231). This caused a lot of anger in Germany He Started the War! They blame us for the war. ARGGH
Article 231 Germany accepts the responsibility of Germany and her allies for causing all the loss and damage to which the Allied governments have been subjected as a consequence of the war imposed upon them by the aggression of Germany and her allies.
Reparations Germany had to pay £6,600 million (called Reparations) for the damage done during the war. Article 232 of the Treaty
Article 232 Germany undertakes that she will make compensation for all damage done to the civilian population of the Allied powers and to their property
No Submarines No Battleships No Military Aircraft
League of Nations set up to settle international disputes
Germany lost all of her colonies and was banned from forming an alliance with Austria
Anschluss The Anschluss was forbidden. This meant that Germany and Austria were not allowed to unite to form one country or Alliance.
Loss of land Additionally Germany lost 13% of her European land and 10% of her population. The Polish corridor was created to give Poland access to the Baltic Sea.
Demilitarised Zone The Rhineland was demilitarised to prevent future attack on France or Belgium.
Questions 1. Were the military terms of treaty unfair to Germany? 2. Why was the Anschluss forbidden by the Treaty of Versailles? 3. Why is article 231 of the treaty known as the War Guilt Clause? 4. Were the Allies justified in forcing Germany to sign Articles 231 and 232 of the Treaty of Versailles?